historyfinalcommontopics

historyfinalcommontopics - Conservatism (Autocracy) Rise of...

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Conservatism (Autocracy) Rise of liberalism (Intellects) Conservatism (Crackdown) Radicalism (Emancipation/Assassination) Conservatism (Counter reforms) Radicalism/Liberalism (Japan war) Dilution of radicalism Reemergence of radicalism (World War and 1917 revolution) - The tyranny of Peter the Great started off the autocratic era. - The Decembrists movement (1825) can be seen as the rise of intellectual liberalism. - The Crimean War (1855) marked the end of Nicholas I’s conservatism. - The emancipation of serfs (1861) led to the rise of liberalism on all fronts. - The assassination of Alexander II (1881) can be seen as the marker for the end of the liberalism in the 19 th century as it led to counter reforms after it. - The war with Japan (1905) marked the reemergence of government opposition involving more parties than before. - The Azef incident, Vekhi, and imprisonments toned down radicalism before the World War. - The World War (1914), amongst other things, led to reemergence of radicalism and eventually the revolution of 1917. Peasants: Stepping stones for abolition of serfdom- (1) In 1761, Peter III abolished the purchase of serfs. (2) In 1765, Catherine II established the Free Economic Society, which sponsored an essay competition on the topic of eliminating serfdom. (3) Pugachev Rebellion (1773-75)- Peasant war. This inspired a radical nobleman, Alexander Radishev to write a book calling for an end to serfdom as early as 1790. (4) In 1797, Paul I passed a law limiting the power of serf owners- Serfs were only forced to work 3 days a week (not on Sundays) and there would be no break up of families in the sale of serfs. (5) In 1803, Alexander I passed the law of free cultivators that allowed landowners to free serfs and provide them with land, however this was not binding. (6) In 1825, the Decembrists movement took place, which further outlined problems of serfdom though involved the intelligentsia and not the peasants. (7) In the late 1830s, the Intelligentsia (inspired by the Decembrists) consisting of Westernizers (Alexander Herzen) and Slavophiles had similar views of abolishing serfdom. (8) In the 1820s, Pushkin wrote on the idealism of freedom for Caucasians during the war to advocate for the abolishment of serfdom. (9) The outcome of the Crimean war led to the realization that the economy and infrastructure, especially in the private sector was limited due to serfdom. Furthermore the lack of reserve army due to the reluctance of serf owners to let the serfs enlist led to Alexander changing this by decreasing the time of service in order to abolish serfdom in an organized manner (because after serving, serfs were free) Post abolition:
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- For peasants, there were still downsides- they still had to pay the poll tax, redemption payments, and were conscripted in the army. They were still an inferior group who were manipulated by the gentry and given scattered lands. This led to several disturbances, the biggest one led by Anton Petrov in Bezdna
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historyfinalcommontopics - Conservatism (Autocracy) Rise of...

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