Move towards democracy in 1905

Move towards democracy in 1905 - Marxism rose due to...

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Marxism rose due to greater literacy, urbanization, greater number and size of factory workers (which would allow them to organize), and poor working conditions. The Black Repartition in 1879 led to the Emancipation of Labor (Plekhanov; Marxism involves industrial workers) in 1883. In 1895, the SPb Union for Emancipation of Labor was established in St. Petersburg in 1895, which was more focused on strikes. Kanatchikov bridged the gap between the workers and intellectuals. In 1898, the first Marxist political party called the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party was established led by Vladimir Lenin . There were significant squabbles between Lenin and those who did not support his political revolutionary views (instead they opted for economism or tailism and revisionism or gradualism (Legal Marxists). In 1902, Lennin wrote “What is to be done?” to telescope the revolutions quickly through iskra (spark) amongst other things. This led to the split of the RSDLP in 1903 into the Mensheviks (Martov; spontaneity willing to follow the instincts of working class) and Bolsheviks (Lenin; more discliplined and reliant on small number of intellectuals). The People’s Will in 1879 led to a neo-populism (peasants) movement in 1901 called SRs (Social Revolutionaries; people who believed that capitalism would not occur and Russia will be an agrarian economy) led by Viktor Chernov and Catherine Breshkovskaia. There were three internal crises (bottom, top and periphery), which eventually led to a war. At the bottom, the workers were becoming more politically conscious rather than just being economic conscious (wages, working conditions). The general strikes in 1901-1903 are celebrated as May Day , showing the workers were seeking solidarity beyond their factories or industries. Also at the bottom, the peasants were being put under pressure by industrialization, which led to famine (due to heavy taxes, pressure to sell grain, overcrowding). Chekov’s story about peasants reflects the poor conditions of the peasants, which would make populism difficult due to poor morale. (he was a realist). Marxists overlook peasants as a source of revolution. They felt that the morale of the peasants would negatively affect the urban workers however the opposite was the case as in the early 1900s there was an industrial depression, which led the peasants beginning revolts in Kharkov and Poltava, against the high prices of the land. After this, there was a revival of the peasant mood, which gave rise to the SR movement (and the Combat Organization ; small terrorist group within it). At the top, there was a new tsar Nicholas II took the throne following the natural death of his
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Move towards democracy in 1905 - Marxism rose due to...

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