Russia’s First constitutional period

Russia’s First constitutional period -...

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Russia’s First “Constitutional” Period (1906-17) - 1 st duma (April-June 1906). On 11 th December 1905, there is an electoral law, which says that the elections are far from satisfying the demands of the constitutionalists as they wanted the four-tail suffrage. (unequal treatment as the higher groups had higher percentage) In most parts of the empire, the electrons were indirect (stages) Left/Radicals Left Center/Liberals Right Center/Liberals Right/Conservatives Bolsh boycott KDs 179 Octobrists 17 United Nobility Mensh boycott/18 Muslim 30 Monarchists SRS boycott Polish 51 Union of Russian People Trudoviks (Labor) 94 Ukranian 40 15 The elected people plan to go to St. Petersburg in April 1906 for the opening of the duma, however the irony is that they still don’t know how much power they are going to have. Hence the government provides power to the duma after they find out who is in the duma. The fundamental laws are promlugated on 23 April 1906 (duma is three days later). The laws are a continuation of the October Manifesto however it violates some of the terms such as the Tsar is still the autocrat, can veto bills passed in the duma, and even dissolve the duma temporarily and invoke emergency powers as stated in Article 87 . The duma has no powers to appoint ministers which directly violates the manifesto. Furthermore it has no power over the budget of the imperial court, army and navy. It cannot declare war or peace. The duma also has no power to alter the fundamental laws themselves, which shows that this is not a constitutional system. In addition to these concerns, the duma was focused on land reforms to redistribute more land from the gentry to the peasants. However the tsar, Nicholas II was very conservative and announces that it will not enact any land reforms due to the inviolability of private property. This leads to a new round of rioting by the peasants. Nicholas dissolves the 1 st duma as they continued to push for the reforms. Nicholas appoints Petr Stolypin as the new prime minister to put together a plan for land reforms. Before this, there was a large protest of the dissolution of the duma, which led to the Vyborg Manifesto by the liberals calling for a civil disobedience protest. The govt responded by exiling and imprisoning many of the liberals, decreasing the number available for the next election. All this issues a new wave of radical assassination attempts by the SRs, such as one on Stolypin’s house. These terrorist acts only lead to greater military crackdown on the radicals. (Nearly 700 death sentences of radicals are carried out in 1906). Stolypin becomes a butcher and the most hated man in Russia. On 9 th November 1906, the “ Wager on the Strong” was issued to make the peasants stronger in the light of adversity. The plan was to redistribute land amongst the peasants to make certain peasants independent and eventually conservative (because they would want political stability) and this would help the government. This would happen largely through the abolition of the peasant commune. This would be done
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Russia’s First constitutional period -...

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