Hist156 - CHAPTER ONE 1 Compare and contrast the major native American Indian civilizations/cultures Consider the Aztecs Incas Pueblo the Iroquois

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CHAPTER ONE 1. Compare and contrast the major native American Indian civilizations/cultures. Consider the Aztecs, Incas, Pueblo, the Iroquois league of tribes, Cahokia, and others. Make the case that in many ways, they were advanced to Europeans. - The Aztecs were a massive, complex society located in central Mexico. The estimated total of their population was around 10-20 million people, and they controlled most of central Mexico. The Aztecs built a great capital in Tenochtitlan. It was a city islands connected to the mainland by three broad causeways and supplied with drinkable water by impressive aqueducts. Their supreme ruler’s power was just as extensive as any European or African monarch. The first Spaniards that entered the city of Tenochtitlan were in awe of the sophistication of the Aztec civilization. -The Incas were a similar civilization to the Aztecs only located alone the west coast of South America. The Incan Empire was very advanced, populous, vast, with a highly organized social system. The Incan Empire was so large that only the only empires to control more land than them were the Ottoman and Chinese Empires. -The Pueblos were a smaller, less advanced civilization located in the southwestern part of North America. Still, this civilization was impressive. The Pueblo people used irrigation, canals, dams, and hillside terracing to water their dry maize fields. Pueblo society impressed the Spanish explorers. They noted that The Pueblos lived in houses very similar to that of their own. -The League of the Iroquois contained 5 tribes; the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca. This civilization was located in eastern North America. They were known to be a civilization that was loosely organized and strife-ridden. They eventually learned to strengthen themselves by joining all 5 of the tribes together in a more cohesive political confederacy. The developed political mechanisms to solve internal problems and obtained a more unified front. These political techniques aided the Iroquois in dealing with the arrival of the Europeans. The Iroquois were viewed strange by Europeans as political power in their society was derived from the senior women (matrons) of ohwachiras (group of related families). -The civilization of the Cahokia was highly elaborate and located along the Mississippi bottomlands. The center of the city of Cahokia contained the largest earth contrasted built by any ancient humans. The central plaza was oriented exactly like that of the Aztecs and Mayas on a north-south axis in order to keep track of the movement of the celestial bodies. Cahokia manufacturers mass-produced salt, knifes, and stone hoe blades for both local consumption and export. Cahokia artisans created sophisticated pottery, jewelry, metalwork and tools. Cahokia was a crucial crossroads of trade and water travel in the heartland of North America. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course HIST 156 taught by Professor Bradbury during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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Hist156 - CHAPTER ONE 1 Compare and contrast the major native American Indian civilizations/cultures Consider the Aztecs Incas Pueblo the Iroquois

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