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AH 190 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE Capitoline Temple: ( Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus) Chronology : - Founded in 509 B.C- the year of the Roman Republic - Started being by Tarquinius Priscus and finished by Rome’s last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus Location : - Capitoline Hill - In ancient times, the Tabularium, or hall of records and city archives were kept on the hill as well. Historical/Cultural Significance: - The most sacred temple in Ancient Rome. - Dedicated to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva (The Capitoline Triad) Architectural/artistic style: - Etruscan style temple - The temple building stands on a high podium with an entrance staircase to the front. On three of its sides it was probably surrounded by a colonnade, with another two rows of pillars drawn up in line with those on the façade of the deep pronaos which precedes the three cells, the central one being wider than the other two - in accordance with the canons of the Tuscanic temple. - Original temple had a cella- chamber in the middle of the temple divided into 3 parts, dedicated to each of the deity’s of the Triad. - Square form with widely spaced columns - Burt down in 83 B.C during a civil war and rebuilt by Sulla, who made use of some of the marble Corinthian columns taken from the Olympieion, Athens - Decorated with terra cotta sculptures Area of Sant’Omobono Chronology : - Built in 15 th Century Location : - At the foot of the Capitoline Hill - It was part of the area that used to be the Forum Holitorium. Historical/Cultural Significance: - 1575: Given to Universita dei Sarti- the Association of Tailors
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and dedicated to Saint Homobonus Architectural/artistic style: - It included 2 temples- The Temple of Fortuna and the temple of Mater Matuta. - Outside where the church was there are ruins of excavated sacrificial altars and temples Circus Maximus: Chronology - Founded by King Tarquinius Priscus (5 th Etruscan ruler of Rome) in the 7th Century BC (530 BC) Location : - Between the Aventine and Palatine Hills - The marshey valley was drained for its construction. Historical/Cultural Significance: - First and largest chariot racing stadium in Rome - First used for non-public games of Emperor Queens - Public games became popular- influenced by Greek games - Julius Caesar expanded the field in 50 B.C - Suffered after the fall of the Roman Empire Architectural/artistic style: - Held up to 250,000 viewers (over 1/4 of the population in Rome) - The design included a stretched oval arena with a flat end, which contained the starting blocks. Chariots would enter the track when metal barriers were lifted. A lavish luxury box was built high upon Palatine hill specifically for the Emperor to oversee the games. - A long Spina (barrier) ran down the center with statues and monuments - 621m x118 m - Seats surrounding the stadium- made of stone at the bottom and wood at the top - Private boxes for seating and an imperial box for the Emperor Forum Cemetery PALATINE IRON AGE HUTS Location : Overlooking the Roman Forum. -Earliest findings are from 9th century BC. Marks the real centre of Rome’s ancient
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