Psyc221 Exam 2 Review

Psyc221 Exam 2 Review - I Chapter 2 Social Cognition a The...

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I. Chapter 2: Social Cognition a. The Principles of Learning i. Our cognitive skills help us learn and remember. ii. Learning - The relatively permanent change in thoughts, feelings, or behavior that occurs as a result of experience. 1. Operant (Instrumental) Learning - Experiences that are followed by positive experiences or emotions (rewards) are likely to be repeated; experiences that are followed by negative experiences or emotions (punishments) are less likely to be repeated. It influences our social knowledge and our behavior, both in direct and subtle ways. 2. Associational (Classical/Respondent) Learning - Occurs when an object or event comes to be associated with a response, such as a behavior or a positive or negative emotion. a. Plays a major role in our knowledge about and judgments of other people. b. Example: Advertisers associate the automobiles they are attempting to sell with attractive models, beautiful outdoor settings, etc. c. Lewicki (1985) conducted research with high school students; long hair and glasses association was made. Donal Carlston found that people like people who say positive things and dislike people who say negative things (about others). 3. Observational Learning (Modeling) - Modeling represents an important alternative type of learning because the individual can learn without engaging in the behaviors him or herself. a. Albert Bandura conducted an experiment where nursery school children observed a film of a young woman beating up a bobo doll. He found that children were more likely to be aggressive if the model had been rewarded for the behavior, and less likely to be so when the model was punished. Nevertheless, children had learned new behaviors, simply by observing and imitating others. b. Social Cognition - Refers to the part of our mental activity that relates to social activities, and which helps us meet the goal of understanding and predicting the behavior of ourselves and others. It guides our behavior, our responses to new people, and even our perceptions of our own selves. i. Schemas/Attitudes - Contain our knowledge and our evaluations of the world around us. Because they represent our past experience, they serve as expectations about future events. 1. They allow us to better understand people, and help us
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make sense of information, particularly when the information is unclear or ambiguous. These judgments are important because they help us to determine how to respond to others. 2. The fact that different people have different past experiences—and thus their schemas and attitudes are different—helps explain why different people draw different conclusions about the same events. 3. Accommodation - When existing schemas change on the basis of new information. a.
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Psyc221 Exam 2 Review - I Chapter 2 Social Cognition a The...

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