CHAPTER 4 - Chapter 4 TheRoleofBooksinOur Culture Books:...

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Chapter 4 The Role of Books in Our  Culture
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Books: Unique Print Media Less timely among all print media Made to last longer than other print media  Not heavily supported by advertising; must  earn profits based on sales of content
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Why Books Are Important After thousands of years, principal repository  of culture, technical knowledge guidance,  teaching sources on many subjects, religious  doctrines basic reference Can promote powerful ideas; inspire great  changes Still a source for entertainment
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The Origins of Books Oldest of all mass media Sumerians developed clay tablets  Greeks perfected the alphabet  Egyptians as early as 3000 B.C. pounded thin layers  of reeds grown by the Nile, papyrus  Scrolls came first; mostly religious; few remain,  such as the Dead Sea Scrolls Led to libraries in Egypt, Rome, Greece; most  destroyed by invaders
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Romans’ Contributions to Print First to go from scrolls to true books with  cut pages, uniform size, writing on both  sides Originated grammatical structure of  sentences, then paragraphs Standardized systems of punctuation Created forerunners of uppercase, or  capital, and lowercase letters.
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Chinese Develop Paper Chinese developed paper, named for papyrus, as  early as the 2nd century A.D. During 8 th  century, Persians captured Chinese  paper makers; secret divulged; Islamic world had  paper long before Europeans. Paper brought to Spain by Moors in the 12 th   century; finally all through Europe within century;  led to monks handwriting books
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Johannes Gutenberg Born in 1400 in Mainz, Germany Moved from one job to another, one city to  another; 1 st  a goldsmith for religious  charms; eventually printed indulgences Marco Polo brought back wood-block  printing from China  In 1455, converted wine press into a  printing system
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Gutenberg’s Press Did not invent the press, but 1 st  to use individual,  interchangeable  metal letters Known as movable type because letters could be  In 1456, printed his first book,  Bible ; 2 columns,  beautifully ornate Each copy cost the equivalent of 3 years’ pay of  average worker; never sold enough Printing press was repossessed; died penniless
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Over next 3 decades, printing presses spread  throughout Europe Government set up prior approval for printers Church set up the 1 st  office of censorship in Mainz  in 1485; city that gave us printing in 1455 also  gave us first censorship after 30 years
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course MASS COMMU 1301 taught by Professor Fluker during the Spring '11 term at Texas State.

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CHAPTER 4 - Chapter 4 TheRoleofBooksinOur Culture Books:...

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