Lecture 5 and 6-synaptic transmission

Lecture 5 and 6-synaptic transmission - Synaptic...

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1 Synaptic transmission – an overview: (1) Types of synapses (1) Electrical: gap junction (2) Chemical: better understood, see below for details (2) Chemical synapses (1) Anatomical categorization (1) Axosomatic: tends to be inhibitory (2) Axodendritic: tends to be excitatory (3) Axoaxonal: regulates release (4) Dendrodendritic and dendrosomatic: less common (2) Functional categorization (1) Excitatory: postsynaptic density (PSD) (2) Inhibitory: symmetric, no PSD (3) Modulatory: GPCR (3) Information flow cycle across synapse (1) Transmitter release (1) AP-triggered Calcium entry (2) Vesicle fusion and recycling (3) Loading vesicles by transporters from cytosol (mention synthesis) (2) Neurotransmitters (1) Reuptake: by the neuron releasing it, by glial cells (2) Degradation: by glial cells or neurons (3) Diffusion (3) Receptors (1) Glutamate: EPSP, ionotropic vs metabotropic (2) GABA and glycine: IPSP, ionotropic vs metabotropic (3) Biogenic Amines and Ach: their regulatory roles (4) Synaptic Integration (5) Firing and transmission of axon potential
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2 Synapse: communication juncture
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3 Soma and Dendrites (receiving chemical inputs) Axon (generate electrical output to control chemical release) Neuron doctrine : neurons are the information processing units of the nervous system. Synaptic integration The Next Neuron
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4 Types of Synapses: (1) Electrical Synapse (gap junction) (2) Chemical Synapse (involving neurotransmitters) Electrical Synapse: • fast (no delay) • bidirectional • permeable up to 1 kDa • used to synchronize network • can be regulated Fig. 6-1A
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5 Fig. 6-9 BL
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6 Fig. 12-4 BB Excitatory synapse Inhibitory synapse Presynaptic membrane (active zone) Postsynaptic density (PSD) symmetrical Electron micrograph of synapses
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7 Fig. 6-6 Vesicle Recycling at the Nerve Terminal SNARE proteins: targets of botulinum toxins V-snare: synaptobrevin T-snare: syntaxin and SNAP-25 Calcium sensor: synaptotagmin High-frequency firing
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8 Release of Neurotransmitter is Quantal Miniature EPP 1 mV each step Fig 6-5 quantum=10,000 molecules (for Ach)=1 vesicle
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9 Neurotransmitters: according to impact on AP firing (1) Excitatory: (1) Glutamate: ligand-gated channels (1) NMDA receptors (2) AMPA receptors (3) Kainate receptors (2) acetylcholine: nicotinic receptors (2) Inhibitory: ligand-gated channels (1) GABA: GABA A, receptors (also GABA C ) (2) Glycine receptors (3) Modulatory (or metabotropic): GPCRs (1) monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, etc) (2) acetylcholine (muscarinic) (3) glutamate: metabotropic glutamate receptors (4) GABA: GABA B
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FIG. 1-10B There are a large number of ion channels in cell membranes (K + , Na + , Ca ++ , Cl - , etc) There are 2 major classes of ion channels: A) voltage-dependent ion channels require a change in membrane potential B) ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic channels ) require a neurotransmitter (NT) to bind to a receptor (R) on the ion channel before the channel opens. + outside
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course PGY 451 taught by Professor Baizer during the Spring '09 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Lecture 5 and 6-synaptic transmission - Synaptic...

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