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prob stats - SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 1 Natural...

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1 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
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2 Natural / Spontaneous Processes Spontaneous change: Change that has tendency to occur without work having to be done to bring it about. A spontaneous change has a natural tendency to occur. Non-spontaneous change: Change that can be brought about only by doing work. A non-spontaneous change has no natural tendency to occur.
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3 Natural / Spontaneous Processes Spontaneous GAS VAC GAS Not Spontaneous Adiabatic free expansion of a gas. Forward process spontaneous. Reverse process not spontaneous although consistent with First Law. Rigid, Adiabatic Container
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4 Natural / Spontaneous Processes Isothermal free expansion of a perfect gas GAS VAC Spontaneous GAS Not Spontaneous Forward process spontaneous. Reverse process not spontaneous although consistent with First Law.
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5 Natural / Spontaneous Processes Hot block Cold block Flow of energy as heat Spontaneous Not Spontaneous Blocks are adiabatically isolated from the rest of universe. In either direction, the process is consistent with the First Law.
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6 Natural / Spontaneous Processes In either direction, the process is consistent with the First Law.
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7 The Second Law denies the possibility of heat to be changed completely to work, there being no other change. Not in conflict with First Law, because the energy is conserved.
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8 Natural / Spontaneous Processes Spontaneous Processes: Matter tends to become disordered. Energy tends to become disordered. Disorder – “Mixing” or “ Spreading”.
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9 Natural / Spontaneous Processes Spontaneous GAS VAC GAS Not Spontaneous Can the reverse process be made to occur? Yes, by introducing a piston and first compressing the gas back to its original volume. Then return the gas to original state by causing a heat transfer to some object in the surroundings Non-adiabatically.
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10 A process i f is irreversible if the system cannot be returned to the initial state i without leaving a change in the surroundings. In case of free expansion of a gas, reverse process is only possible by doing work and when there is change in the state of surroundings. Therefore, the reverse process is non-spontaneous . In other words, the free expansion is irreversible process. An irreversible process is also said to be spontaneous or natural .
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