Social Psychology Exam 1 Notes

Social Psychology Exam 1 Notes - E xperimental Design 2 I...

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Experimental Design – 2 Independent Variables - You can create a more detailed factorial design - 3-Way factorial design - Between subjects design (different people) - Within subjects design - Mixed designs - Multiple dependant variables Ethical Guidelines - Informed consent (participation is voluntary) - Confidentiality (privacy) - Debriefing - Deception (protection from harm) As a consumer - Group vs. Individual - Watch for small samples - Read as much as you can - Avoid causation when there is none - Consider the source Sense of Self - Self-concept (sense of self) - Self-schemas (personality traits) - Self-reference effect - Spotlight effect (Illusion of Transparency)
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Self and Culture - Individual identity (individualism) - Group identity (collectivism) Examples of Self-serving Bias - Ethics – we think we’re more ethical than others - Virtues – we’re more honest than everyone - Intelligence – I’m a genius and you’re average - Tolerance – I’m not a racist but the KKK is - Professional competence – our performance is better than peer’s - Parental support – I’m a wonderful child to my parents - Health – we think we’re healthier than most - Driving – still a good driver after crashing into a tree Illusory optimism – believing we are immune to misfortune Defensive pessimism – assuming the worst will happen False Consensus Effect - Overestimating the opinion of others - What we think is what everyone else thinks - If I cheat, everyone else must cheat - False uniqueness effect Conformity - Solomon Asch – 75% of the time participants complied with the group, while not coerced - Stanley Milgrim o “Please continue”
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o “The experiment requires that you continue” o “It is absolutely essential that you continue” o “You have no other choice; you must continue” Obedience - Emotional distance - Legitimacy of authority - Authority figure’s venue - Feels liberating to go with the crowd (like rescuing people) Persuasion - Message changes attitude, behavior, and beliefs o Communicator - credibility and attractiveness o Message reason vs. emotion Thoughtful audiences usually value reason Uninterested audiences usually value emotion People who feel good can usually be persuaded o Communication method (ex. Fear – preventative health care, safe sex, smoking) o Audience – age of audience - Central route – when the argument is strong and people are interested in the argument - Peripheral route – not really paying attention and other cues trigger us to pay attention Locus of Control - Internal locus - External locus
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Learned helplessness - Perceived lack of control - Led to by uncontrollable events Self-esteem - Self-efficacy (Bandura) – belief in knowing we are competent and effective - Mastery experiences o When you do well you want to do better o Be specific about good performance - Explicit self-esteem – conscious of how great we are - Implicit self-esteem – unconscious of how great we are - Extremely high self-esteem folks when threatened can become hostile
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course PSYC 2700 taught by Professor Ruecker during the Spring '11 term at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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Social Psychology Exam 1 Notes - E xperimental Design 2 I...

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