17 Recharge and Flow

17 Recharge and Flow - Exam II is Wednesday, October 14 th...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam II is Wednesday, October 14 th Updated study guide will be posted this afternoon Review session will be held on October 12 th in class Aquifer Recharge, Lakes, and Springs The Florida Platform was dominated by marine carbonate deposition between 150 and 24 mya The most recently deposited carbonates from The Oligocene and the Eocene between 55 and 24 mya comprise the principal water bearing unit of the Floridan aquifer. Silicon-based (siliciclastic) Miocene sediments from the continent, principally the Appalachians, settled over the carbonates beginning 24 million years ago forming the upper confining unit for the aquifer Sandier sediments subsequently covered the Miocene deposits 55 – 24 million years ago Miocene Clays (Hawthorne Formation) Surface Siliciclastics (sandy) (highly permeable) The Floridan aquifer is a confined aquifer. The water-bearing unit is permeable limestone. Low Permeability Confining Unit (poor water movement) Unconfined aquifer is extensive throughout the state of Florida Low permeability rock (confining) CaCO 3 + H + = H CO 3-+ Ca 2+ Acidity from rainfall reacts with CaCO 3 and dissolves the carbonate rock. (solid) (solution) (acid) (solution) CO 2 + H 2 O = H 2 CO 3 H 2 CO 3 => H + + HCO 3-Aquifer porosity originates from acid dissolution of the limestone, creating cavities and cave systems. Caves and Solution Cavities Acid dissolves calcium carbonate CaCO 3 + H + = HCO 3-+ Ca 2+ Carbonates Clayey Deposits Karst Topography Characterized by sinkholes , depressions, springs, lakes Sinkhole formation depends on the material overlying the carbonate water-bearing unit Thin, sandy covering Dissolution Sinkholes Thick sands up to 200 ft thick and some clays Subsidence Sinkholes Cohesive clays up to 200ft thick Collapse Sinkholes Miocene clays have been eroded and shaped throughout their history resulting in extreme variability in thickness across the state. Sinkhole Types solution Cover Subsidence Cover Collapse Gradual Abrupt Gradual Sinkholes, Lakes, Aquifer Recharge Sinkholes and Lakes The most common origin of lake formation in Florida Limestone bedrock is dissolved by acids Land subsidence into dissolved limestone cavities creates depressions filled with water Subsidence and collapse sinkholes both can form lakes. Subsidence lakes are the most common. Initially the limestone contains...
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2011 for the course SWS 2007 taught by Professor bonczek during the Fall '09 term at University of Florida.

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17 Recharge and Flow - Exam II is Wednesday, October 14 th...

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