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Overhead_for_Summary_Handout_02

Overhead_for_Summary_Handout_02 - LAST WEEK Linguistics the...

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Unformatted text preview: LAST WEEK Linguistics the study of human language systems Goal of Linguistics - to describe and explain the sytematic rules and constraints that account for speaker knowledge of: word formation sentence fomation pronunciation meaning 0 approach taken to this study is descriptive (attempting to account for observed properties of actual usage) rather than prescriptive Goals of the Course 0 to introduce one to the nature and diversity of human language systems 0 to acquaint one with the practical techniques of language description and analysis THIS WEEK English Word Classes English Word Classes Noun (N) Pronoun (PN) Verb (V) Auxiliary (Aux) Adjective (A) Determiner (D) Adverb (Adv) Degree (Deg) Preposition (P) Conjunction (Conj) Traditional Classification Systems based on shared meaning properties Modern Classification Systems based on shared structural properties structural properties can be syntactic or morphological in nature syntactic: pertains to the position in which a word occurs relative to other words in a phrase or sentence morphological: pertains to word structure properties Noun (N) Structural Properties 0 can be made possessive eg. F red ’s, his sister’s ' can be pluralized eg. arms, oxen 0 can occur as main word in a phrase Where immediately preceded by a determiner or adjective eg. a solution; empty promises meaning properties: designate a person, place or thing Adjective (A) Structural Properties ° can be made comparative eg. happier, warmer 0 can be made superlative eg. smallest, tallest 0 can occur as main word in a phrase where immediately preceded by a degree word such as quite or very eg. quite possible, very shallow. 0 can occur before a noun (eg. wondefll news) or between a noun and a determiner in a noun phrase eg. a new day meaning properties: designate a quality or state Determiner (D) Structural Properties occur at the beginning of a noun phrase before a noun and any intervening adjective eg. your book; those people; a yellow chair a, an, the this, that, these, those my, your, her, his, its, our, their any, some, each, every, no, neither, etc. meaning properties: delimit a N for some grammatical property such as definiteness, possession, etc. Pronoun (PN) Structural Properties . a word that has the same distribution as a noun phrase The manager left early She left early 0 central pronouns also distinguished for person and number and to a limited extent, gender Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Singular Plural Singular Plural 1St I we me us 211d you you you you 3rd she they her them he him it it Reflexive Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Singular Plural Singular Plural 1St myself ourself mine ours 2“" yourself yourselves yours yours 3rd herself themselves hers theirs himself his itself its Note: person number distinctions also characteristic of possessive Ds. Unlike pronouns, though, possessive Ds do not occur on their own I saw that Fred finally told me Mine is on the table That book is mine My book is on the table *My is on the table Verb Structural Properties 0 can be distinguished for the following categories: Be Eat Think present tense am/are/is eat/eats think/thinks past tense was/were ate thought past participle been eaten thought progressive being eating thinking infinitive be eat think Lexical Verb/Main Verb (V) occur as the only verb or final verb in a verb string She toldV Fred She may tellV Fred She has toldV Fred She is tellingV Fred She should have toldV Fred Auxiliary (Aux) ° occur as a nonfinal verb in a verb string She mayAux tell Fred She hasAux told Fred She isAux telling Fred She didAux tell Fred She shouldAux haveAux told Fred Walk walk/walks walked walked walking walk Types of English Auxiliaries 0 modals: can could will would shall should may might must 0 primary auxiliaries: have, be, do Note: have, be and do can also function as main verbs She hasV two brothers She has Aux told Fred already She isV very busy right now She is Aux leaving soon She didV it quickly She did Aux get the message meaning properties: lexical verbs designate an action, state, process or relation auxilliaries express various grammatical notions such as tense, aspect voice, etc. Adverb (Adv) Structural Properties 0 often formed from adjectives by the addition of -ly eg. brutally, cleverly 0 in many cases, can have relatively free placement within a sentence eg. they left the room quickly; they quickly left the room; quickly, they left the room 0 like As, many adverbs can occur as the main word in a phrase where immediately preceded by a degree word eg. very fa_st; rather quickly, quite unhaQQily Note like As also, a few Advs can be made comparative or superlative eg. they left early vs. they left earlier meaning properties: designate a number of different meaning properties including: manner eg. slowly, fast, happily, violently measure eg. almost, nearly, hardly frequency eg. frequently, rarely, sometime Degree Word (Deg) Structural Properties 0 occur immediately before an adjective or adverb in an adjective phrase or adverb phrase V61 )3 Sli’Ol’lg rather quickly Preposition (P) Structural Properties 0 can occur as the main word in a phrase where followed by a noun phrase eg. with great care; by the door Note: also true of verbs eg. She bought a new car unlike verbs, though, Ps do not have different tense forms 0 often can be immediately preceded in a phrase by the degree word right eg. right in; right o_n; right near Note: also true of As and Advs in some nonstandard dialects eg. She is a right smart person / He is a right good puppy meaning properties: designate a number of different meaning properties including: location: eg. under, on, at, between direction: eg. to, from, through, toward accompaniment: with, without possession: of agency: by Conjunction (Conj) words that have a connecting function primary English conjunctions are and, or, but Summary of Structural Properties of English Word Classes Noun (N) 0 can be pluralized eg. arms, oxen ° can be made possessive eg. F red ’s, his sister's 0 can occur as main word in a phrase where immediately preceded by a determiner or adjective Verb 0 can be distinguished for the categories present tense, past tense, past participle, progressive and infinitive Lexical Verb/Main Verb (V): occurs as the only verb or final verb in a verb string Auxiliary (Aux): occur as a nonfinal verb in a verb string Adjective (A) 0 can be made comparative or superlative ° can occur as main word in a phrase where immediately preceded by a degree word ' can occur before a noun or between a noun and determiner in a noun phrase Adverb (Adv) ° often formed from adjectives by the addition of -ly - can have relatively free placement within a sentence 0 can occur as main word in a phrase where immediately preceded by a degree word (0 can be made comparative or superlative - true of a few Advs only) Preposition (P) 0 can occur as the main word in a phrase where followed by a noun phrase 0 can occur as the main word in a phrase where immediately preceded by the degree word right Determiner (D) occur at the beginning of a noun phrase before a noun and any intervening adjective Pronoun (PN) - a word that has the same distribution as a noun phrase - central English pronouns also distinguished for person, number, gender Degree Word (Deg) 0 occur immediately before an adjective or adverb in an adjective or adverb phrase Conjunction (Conj) primary English conjunctions and, or, but join together words, phrases or clauses ...
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