Overhead_for_Summary_Handout_05

Overhead_for_Summary_Handout_05 - Word Formation principal...

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Unformatted text preview: Word Formation principal types of word formation processes in language are: ' affixation ' compounding Derivational Affixation creates new words by the addition of a derivational affix affordable redo appearance legalize drinkable realign allowance modernize supportable rethink disturbance centralize -able: A --> N re-: V —->V -ance: V --> N -ize: A --> V recital accidental referral marginal proposal bridal -all: V -—> N —a12: N --> A unwise undo unhappy untie unclean undress 11111-1 A "> Anegative 11112-2 V __> Vreversive Compounding creates new words by combining two or more stems bittersweet strongbox whitewash blackout colourblind bedbug sunbathe shoe-in diehard daredevil hitchhike ripoff upright outlaw downsize into the parts of a compound can be free roots, derived words or other compounds bittersweet firefighter sister-in-law Inflectional Affixation words formed by affixation and/or compounding can combine with inflectional affixes that occur with members of the word class in question (N, V, A, etc) appearances outlaws legalized downsized Internal Structure of Complex Words ordering of morphemes within words is not random but determined by the following criteria: 0 the distributional properties of each occurring affix (i.e. which category does an affix attache to and which category does it form) - the meaning of the newly formed word eg. unthinkable a) A b) *A A V V/\ /\ un think able un think able negative un- attaches to As, not Vs Other Types of Word Formation reduplication morpheme internal change suppletion acronymy blending clipping back formation conversion/zero derivation Reduplication a word formation process that involves copying all or part of a stem Total Reduplication an entire stem is reduplicated Indonesian rumah house rumahrumah houses ibu mother ibuibu mothers bunga flower bungabunga flowers Partial Reduplication only part of a stem is reduplicated (in the examples below, a period indicates syllable divisions) Tagalog Future Tense Formation reduplicate the initial syllable (alternatively, reduplicate the initial CV) bi.li buy bi.bi.li will buy pa.sok enter pa.pa.sok will enter Ilocano Plural Formation reduplicate the initial (C)V(C) sequence i.e. reduplicate the initial vowel and any immediately preceding or immediately following consonant bi.ag li e bi.bi.ag lives ta.lon field tal.ta.lon fields u.lo head u.lu.lo heads Samoan Plural Subject Agreement reduplicate the penultimate (i.e. second last) syllable la. ga s/he weaves la.la.ga they weave ma.lo.si s/he is strong ma.lo.lo.si they are strong a.ta.ma.ki s/he is wise a.ta.ma.ma.ki they are wise Internal Change (Ablaut) the substitution of one or more sounds in a morpheme in order to express a morphological contrast foot / feet come / came Suppletion the replacement of one form of a morpheme with another that has no systematic phonetic similarity in order to express a morphological contrast good / better / best go / went Acronymy an acronym is a word that is formed by combining the initial part of most or all of the words in a phrase NAFTA (< florth American Eree Irade Agreement) UNICEF (united flations International thldren's Emergency Ijund) OSAP < Qntario §tudent Assistance Brogram OCAP (< Qntario Qoalition Against _Poverty) scuba (< self contained underwater breathing apparatus) radar (< radio detecting and ranging) laser (< light amplification by simulated emission of radiation) Alaphabetism a type of acronym that is pronounced as a sequence of sounds rather than as a word TTC (<_1_‘or0nto Iransit Qommission) CIA (< (_3enral lntelligence Agency) Blending a process in which words are formed by combining parts of different words (usually the first part of one word and the final part of another). brunch (< meakfast and lunch) telethon (< t_61_6phone and marathon) smog (< s_rr_10ke and fog) Clipping a process in which a word is formed by deleting one or more syllables from an existing word. ad (< advertisement) math (<mathematics) gas (<gasoline) deli (< delicatessen) lab (< laboratory) Back Formation the process of forming words by deleting a real or imagined affix resurrect (< resurrection) donate (< donation) swindle (< swindler) beg (< beggar) edit (< editor) pea (< pease) results from speakers reanalyzing what initially was a simple word as being complex based on analogy with other existing words in the language. Stage 1 Stage 2 Simple Complex Simple Complex select selection select selection express expression express expression donation donate donation Conversion also referred to as zero derivation a process whereby an existing word is assigned to another lexical category without changing the basic form of the word. contrastN ——> contrastV laughV ——> laughN clean A —> cleanN Summary of Word Formation Processes Additive Processes: Affixation Compounding Reduplication Replacive Processes: Internal Change Suppletion Shortening Processes: Acronymy Blending Clipping Back Formation Conversion Processe: Conversion/Zero Derivation Morphological Systems two principal types of morphological system are: - analytic ° synthetic Analytic/Isolating words composed of roots only Mandarin ta chi 1e fan He ate the meal he eat past meal Synthetic words can be formed by the addition of one or more affixes further classified as agglutinating, fitsional or polysynthetic Agglutinating affixes easily separated from stems and generally encode a single meaning or grammatical function Turkish ev-ler-dcn from the houses house-plural-direction F usional affixes not always easily separated from stems and often encode more than a single meaning or grammatical function Latin port-a gate-feminine singular nominative gate Polysynthetic/Incorporating words often formed by combining several stems and affixes and often express a meaning that corresponds to an entire sentence S ora anin-nam—jo—te-n He is catching fish he-catch-fish-nonpast-do ...
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