Overhead_for_Summary_Handout_08

Overhead_for_Summary - Recursion the property of a given category occurring within itself(either directly or indirectly[The house is for sale[The

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Unformatted text preview: Recursion the property of a given category occurring within itself (either directly or indirectly) [The house] is for sale [The house on the corner] is for sale [The house on the comer of the street] is for sale NP /1\ D N PP A NP P NP /'1\ /I\ D N PP D N PP A /\ NP l P NP P NP D N . | D N D N the house the house on the corner the house on the corner of the street [That man's sister] is named Alice [ That man's friend's sister] is named Alice NP ,/\ NP NP N ./‘\ A NP N NP N D N D N that man's sister that man's friend's sister The rat [ might eat the cheese ] The rat [ has eaten the cheese ] The rat [ is eating the cheese ] The rat [ has been eating the cheese ] VP /\ VP VP VP V Aux VP VAux /V\P VAux )3 VAux j: VAuX /yP\ V NP V NP V NP V NP D N D N D N D N might eat the cheese has eaten the cheese is eating the cheese has been eating the cheese Coordination the joining of two or more categories by means of a primary conjunction primary English conjunctions: and, or, but conjoined categories can be lexical or phrasal Lexical Ed bought [a washer and dryer] (N and N) Ned [waxed and polished the car] (V and V) Fred went [up and over the hill] (P and P) Phrasal Fran met [that man and his girlfriend] (NP and NP) Dan [cooked dinner and ate it] (VP and VP) Stan went [up the hill and over the ridge] (PP and PP) in general, only categories of the same type can be conjoined grammatically. *They left [the houseNP and in a carPP] *They [cooked dinnerVP and rather shyAP] I saw[ that woman and her husband ] conjoined NPs She sold [ her house and car] conjoined Ns I spoke to [ that woman and Henry] earlier conjoined NPs S S S NP VP NP VP NP VP PN V /N]l)\ PN V NP PN V PP AdVP NP Conj NP D N P ‘ NP Adv /\ /\ /j\ /I\ D N D N N Conj N NP Conj NP I I I | l A I i | I D N N I saw that woman and her husband She sold her house and car I spoke to that woman and Henry earlier Simple vs. Complex Sentence simple sentence: consists of a single clause complex sentence: consists of two or more clauses Types of Complex Sentences can consist of two or more conjoined main clauses or one or more subordinate clauses Main Clause vs. Subordinate Clause a main clause is one that does not function as part of another clause a subordinate (or embedded) clause is a one that functions as a grammatical subpart of another clause Bob flew to Chicago and Hope took a train to Calgary (conjoined main clauses) Bob said Hope took a train to Calgary (embedded clause) Structural Form of a Subordinate Clause a subordinate clause can have the syntactic form of an S or a complementizer phrase (CP) Greta [ saidV she saw GeorgeS ]VP Fred [ saidV that she saw Georgecp ]VP Complementizer Phrase a CP is a structural unit that consists of complementizer + a following S S S NP P NP VP V P /\ /\ NP VP C S PN V NP NP VP i /\ N PN V NIP ' i I N Greta said she saw George Greta said that she saw George Complementizer also referred to as a subordinating conjunction the set of English complementizeers includes words such as that, if, whether, while, because, etc. and various words that are similar in form to prepositons (for, before, after, since, etc.). Subordinate Clause Functions possible functions of an embedded clause include: dependent of a lexical head subject She [askedV if we could change our plansCP ]VP I believe [ theD claimN that beavers built those damsCP ]NP He is [afraid A that you disapprove of the proposalCP ]AP [That he arrived early]cp surprised everyone ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course LING 1000 taught by Professor Tom during the Fall '08 term at York University.

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Overhead_for_Summary - Recursion the property of a given category occurring within itself(either directly or indirectly[The house is for sale[The

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