Summary_Handout_02

Summary_Handout_02 - Ling. 1000 6.0 02 Introduction to...

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Unformatted text preview: Ling. 1000 6.0 02 Introduction to Linguistics 1. Word Classes Words can be classified as lexical or nonlexical. Lexical words are those that have independent meaning while nonlexical words express a grammatical function instead. Types of lexical and nonlexical word classes include the following: lexical: noun (N), verb (V), adjective (A), preposition (P), adverb (Adv) nonlexical: pronoun (PN), auxiliary (Aux), determiner (D), degree word (Deg), Conjunction (Conj) Traditional classification systems assign words to classes on the basis of shared meaning properties. Modern classification systems classify words on the basis of shared structural properties. Structural criteria used in classifying words can be syntactic (pertaining to the distribution of words within sentences).or morpholgical (pertaining to word structure properties). 2. Noun Characteristic structural properties of English nouns include the following: - can be made possessive eg. Wanda 's car; the coach's strategy - can be pluralized eg. books, children ' can occur as the main word in a phrase where immediately preceded by a determiner or adjective eg. the book, a good M Semantically, nouns designate a person, place or thing. 3 . Adjective Structural characteristics of English adjectives include the following: ° can be made comparative (eg. taller, sadder) or superlative (eg. wisest, happiest) 0 can occur as the main word in a phrase where immediately preceded by a degree word such as rather, quite or very eg. rather hungry, quite unusual., very small - can occur immediately before a noun or between a noun and determiner in a noun phrase g. fast cars, a large animal Semantically, adjectives designate a quality or state. 4 . Determiner A determiner is a word that delimits a noun for some grammatical property (such as definiteness, possession, etc.). Structurally, determiners occur at the beginning of a noun phrase preceding a noun and any intervening adjective eg. a book; [hm people; m best friend. Central deterrniners in English are the articles a, an and the. Other determiners include the demonstratives this, that, these, those; the possessives my, your, his, her, its, our, their and various quantifying expressions that do not co—occur with other members of the determiner class (any, same, each, every, no, neither, etc.) 5 . Pronoun Pronouns (PN) are a nonlexical subclass of noun that have the same syntactic distribution as a noun phrase. The guests left early They left early An additional structural property of the central English pronouns is that they are distinguished for person (15', 2"d or 3‘“) and number (singular or plural) and, to some limited extent, gender (masculine, feminine, neuter). Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural 1st I we me us mine ours myself ourselves 2“d you you you you yours yours yourself yourselves 3‘11 he they him them his theirs himself themselves she her hers herself it it its itself 6 . Verb Verrbs are words that can be distinguished for such categories as the following: Be Eat See Have D0 Talk present am/is/ are eat/eats see/sees have/has do/does talk/talks past was/were ate saw had did talked past participle been eaten seen had done talked progressive being eating seeing having doing talking infinitive be eat see have do talk Lexical verbs (V), also referred to as main verbs, are those that occur as the only verb in a sentence or as the final verb in a verb string where preceded by an auziliary. Auxilliary verbs (Aux) are a nonlexical subclass of verb that occur as the nonfinal member of a verb string. Types of English auxiliaries include modals (can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might, must) and the primary auxiliaries have, be and do. Jack lefi‘V Jach willAux leaveV soon J ach hasAux leftV Jack is Aux leavingv Jach will A,“ beAux leavingV soon Semantically, lexical verbs designate an action, state, process or relation while auxilliaries express various grammatical notions such as tense, aspect voice, etc. 7 . Preposition Structural characteristics of English prepositions include the following: - can occur as the main word in a phrase where followed by a noun phrase eg. with Ralph; by the door - can occur as the main word in a phrase where immediately preceded by the degree word right eg. right in; right m Semantically, prepositions designate various notions such as location (eg. under, an, at, between), direction (eg. to, from, through, toward), time (eg. before, after, since, during), accompaniment (with, without), possession (of), agency (by), etc. 8 . Adverb Structural properties of English adverbs include the following: - frequently formed from an adjective by the addition of -ly eg. brutally, cleverly - often have relatively free placement within a sentence eg. they left quickly; they quickly left; quickly, they left 0 like adjectives, can occur as the main word in a phrase where immediately preceded by a degree word such as rather, quite or too eg. rather fa_st; too quickly, quite unhapgily Semantically, adverbs designate a number of properties including manner (slowly, fast, happily, violently), measure (almost, nearly, hardly) and frequency (frequently, rarely, sometime). 9. Degree Word Degree words are often considered to be a nonlexical subclass of adverb (eg. very, quite, rather, somewhat, etc.). Structurally, degree words are those that occur at the beginning of an adjective or adverb phrase eg. veg clever, quite quickly. 1 0. Conjunction A conjunction is a word that has a connecting function. Primary English conjunctions are and, or and but. 0 Associated Reading photocopied reading The Words of English (avalable on the course website at moodle.yorku.ca) ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course LING 1000 taught by Professor Tom during the Fall '08 term at York University.

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Summary_Handout_02 - Ling. 1000 6.0 02 Introduction to...

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