Summary_Handout_04 - Ling 1000 6.0 04 Introduction to...

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Unformatted text preview: Ling. 1000 6.0 04 Introduction to Linguistics 1 . Word Structure Words can be simple or complex. A simple word consists of a single unit of word formation while a complex word consists of two or more such units. Simple Complex empty dirty motor visitor dial fictional A unit of word formation that cannot be analyzed into further meaningful parts is called a morpheme. 2 . Free vs. Bound Morpheme Morphemes can be free or bound. A free morpheme is one that can occur in isolation (eg. empty, dirt, motor). A bound morpheme is one that never occurs by itself (eg. dirty, fictional). 3 . Root vs. Affix Within morphologically complex words, morphemes can be classified as roots or afi‘ixes. A root is a lexical morpheme (N, V, etc.) that constitutes the principal element of meaning in a word. singer reclaim An affix is a bound morpheme that attaches to another morpheme or combination of morphemes. empower employment The unit to which an affix attaches is referred to as a stem (or base). Like words, a stem can be simple or complex. real—ist realist-ic 4 . Types of Affixes Affixes can be classified as a prefix, sufi‘ix, infix or circumfix. A prefix is an affix that is attached before a stem. unwise mismanage A suffix is an affix that is attached after a stem. brighten selective An infix is an affix that is attached inside a stem. Oaxaca Chantal ceoe squirrel celoe squirrels tuwa foreigner tulwa foreigners A circumfix is a discontinuous morpheme that occurs on either side of a stem . Chickasaw chokma is good ikchokmo isn’t good palli is hot ikpallo isn’t hot 5. Dervational vs. Inflectional Affixes can be further characterized as derivational or inflectional. The distinction between the two is determined primarily on the basis of meaning/function and productivity. Derivation Inflection - creates new words by changing category and/or meaning - indicates grammatical distinctions within a word class - occurs with a restricted subset of the words of a given class - occurs with all or most words of a given class English inflectional categories are the following: plural elbows, oxen, cacti possession Carla's book, that girl's brother 3rd sg. subject agreement Mortimer drinks to excess past tense he worke1_i at the Seven-Eleven for more than twenty years progressive they will be discussi_ng it later this afternoon past participle I have takm the pills/she has never lookg better comparative a simpl_e_r solution superlative the simplest solution The number and type of inflectional categories can vary somewhat from language to language. 6 . Allomorphy Some morphemes have a single invariant phonetic form while other morphemes have two or more pronunciation forms. door-s electric ox—en electric-ity The different phonetic forms of a morpheme are referred to as allomorphs. 7. Identifying Morphemes A morpheme is a unit of word formation that is defined in terms of its meaning/function and distribution. A sound or sequence of sounds can be analyzed as a morpheme if it meets both of the following criteria: i) it expresses a meaning or grammatical function that is consistent with its meaning or function in other contexts. ii) it cannot be analyzed into further meaningful parts The word unwise, for example, can be analyzed as consisting of the morphemes un— and wise since the meaning of wise in unwise is similar to that in words such as wise, wiser, wisest, while the meaning and distribution of un— is similar to that in words such as unhappy, unclean, untidy, etc. (i.e. it attaches to an adjective to form the corresponding negative). It is also the case that un- and wise cannot be analyzed into further meaningful parts. A sound or sequence of sounds that does not express a recognizable meaning or function can also be analyzed as a morpheme if it occurs in combination with what can reasonably be assumed to be some other morpheme(s). The sequence boysen in boysenberry, for example, can be analyzed as a morpheme since berry can reasonably be taken to be the morpheme berry that occurs in such words as berry, blackberry, blueberry, etc. Note: Spelling and pronunciation differences are not relevant for the purpose of determining whether a given sound or sequence of sounds is a morpheme since a morpheme is a unit of word formation that is defined in terms of its meaning/function and distribution rather than its spelling or pronunciation. 0 Associated Reading Chapter 2 pp. 33-47; 67-71 ...
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