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Unformatted text preview: Ling. 1000 6.0 04
Introduction to Linguistics 1 . Word Structure Words can be simple or complex. A simple word consists of a single unit of word formation while a complex word
consists of two or more such units. Simple Complex
dial ﬁctional A unit of word formation that cannot be analyzed into further meaningful parts is called a morpheme. 2 . Free vs. Bound Morpheme Morphemes can be free or bound. A free morpheme is one that can occur in isolation (eg. empty, dirt, motor). A bound
morpheme is one that never occurs by itself (eg. dirty, ﬁctional). 3 . Root vs. Affix Within morphologically complex words, morphemes can be classified as roots or aﬁ‘ixes. A root is a lexical morpheme
(N, V, etc.) that constitutes the principal element of meaning in a word. singer reclaim
An afﬁx is a bound morpheme that attaches to another morpheme or combination of morphemes.
The unit to which an affix attaches is referred to as a stem (or base). Like words, a stem can be simple or complex. real—ist realist-ic 4 . Types of Affixes Affixes can be classified as a preﬁx, suﬁ‘ix, inﬁx or circumﬁx. A prefix is an afﬁx that is attached before a stem.
unwise mismanage A suffix is an affix that is attached after a stem.
brighten selective An inﬁx is an affix that is attached inside a stem. Oaxaca Chantal ceoe squirrel celoe squirrels
tuwa foreigner tulwa foreigners A circumﬁx is a discontinuous morpheme that occurs on either side of a stem . Chickasaw chokma is good ikchokmo isn’t good
palli is hot ikpallo isn’t hot 5. Dervational vs. Inflectional Afﬁxes can be further characterized as derivational or inﬂectional. The distinction between the two is determined primarily on
the basis of meaning/function and productivity. Derivation Inﬂection
- creates new words by changing category and/or meaning - indicates grammatical distinctions within a word class
- occurs with a restricted subset of the words of a given class - occurs with all or most words of a given class English inﬂectional categories are the following: plural elbows, oxen, cacti possession Carla's book, that girl's brother 3rd sg. subject agreement Mortimer drinks to excess past tense he worke1_i at the Seven-Eleven for more than twenty years
progressive they will be discussi_ng it later this afternoon past participle I have takm the pills/she has never lookg better
comparative a simpl_e_r solution superlative the simplest solution The number and type of inﬂectional categories can vary somewhat from language to language. 6 . Allomorphy
Some morphemes have a single invariant phonetic form while other morphemes have two or more pronunciation forms. door-s electric
ox—en electric-ity The different phonetic forms of a morpheme are referred to as allomorphs. 7. Identifying Morphemes A morpheme is a unit of word formation that is defined in terms of its meaning/function and distribution. A sound or
sequence of sounds can be analyzed as a morpheme if it meets both of the following criteria: i) it expresses a meaning or grammatical function that is consistent with its meaning or function in other contexts.
ii) it cannot be analyzed into further meaningful parts The word unwise, for example, can be analyzed as consisting of the morphemes un— and wise since the meaning of wise in
unwise is similar to that in words such as wise, wiser, wisest, while the meaning and distribution of un— is similar to that in
words such as unhappy, unclean, untidy, etc. (i.e. it attaches to an adjective to form the corresponding negative). It is also
the case that un- and wise cannot be analyzed into further meaningful parts. A sound or sequence of sounds that does not express a recognizable meaning or function can also be analyzed as a morpheme
if it occurs in combination with what can reasonably be assumed to be some other morpheme(s). The sequence boysen in
boysenberry, for example, can be analyzed as a morpheme since berry can reasonably be taken to be the morpheme berry that
occurs in such words as berry, blackberry, blueberry, etc. Note: Spelling and pronunciation differences are not relevant for
the purpose of determining whether a given sound or sequence of sounds is a morpheme since a morpheme is a unit of word
formation that is defined in terms of its meaning/function and distribution rather than its spelling or pronunciation. 0 Associated Reading Chapter 2 pp. 33-47; 67-71 ...
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- Fall '08