Summary_Handout_05 - Ling 1000 6.0 05 Introduction to...

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Unformatted text preview: Ling. 1000 6.0 05 Introduction to Linguistics 1 . Word Formation Common types of processes involved in forming complex words are aflixation and compounding. Derivational affixation is a process that creates new words by the addition of a derivational affix. affordable accidental recital unwise undo drinkable marginal referral unhappy untie supportable bridal proposal unclean undress A compound is a word that contains two or more roots. bittersweet strongbox whitewash blackout colourblind bedbug sunbathe shoe-in diehard daredevil hitchhike ripoff upright outlaw downfall into The parts of a compound can be free morphemes, derived words or other compounds in nearly any combination. jumpsuit firefighter schoolyard playground Words formed by derivation and/or compounding may combine with inflectional affixes that occur with members of the word class in question. proposals hitchhiked 2. The Internal Structure of Complex Words Within complex words, morphemes are not arranged in a simple linear fashion but are hierarchically organized instead i.e. words are formed by attaching morphemes one at a time to form successively larger units rather than by attaching all morphemes at once. The internal structure of words can be shown by means of a word tree diagram. A V A N/\ /\ V A/\ V/\ /\N N/\ develop ment a1 dis en franchise ic y cold The order in which morphemes are attached to form a complex word is not random but is determined by the following criteria: - the distributional properties of each occurring affix (i.e. which category it attaches to and which category it forms) 0 the meaning of the newly formed word The word unthinkable, for example, is formed in the manner indicated in (a) rather than (b). a) A b) A A V v/\ /\V un think able un think able The reason for this is that the English negative prefix un- typically attaches to adjectives and not verbs eg. unwise, unreal unkind vs. *unthink, *unbreak, *unsay. The tree diagram in (a) is consistent with this fact of English since it indicates that unthinkable is formed by attaching negative un- to the adjective stem thinkable (formed in turn by attaching the suffix -able to the verb root think). Conversely, the tree diagram in (b) makes the incorrect claim that the negative prefix un- attaches to the verb root think to form the verb stem *unthink. The claim that (a) is the correct representation of unthinkable is further supported by a consideration of the difference in the implied meanings of (a) and (b). The implied meaning of (a) is “not thinkable” while the implied meaning of (b) is “capable of being unthought”. Since unthinkable means “not thinkable” (rather than “capable of being unthought”) only the implied meaning of (a) is consistent with the actual meaning of the word. 3. Types of Morphological System Languages can be classified according to general properties of word structure and word formation. Two principal types of morphological system are analytic and synthetic. An analytic (or isolating) language (eg. Cantonese, Mandarin, Vietnamese) is one in which words generally consist of root morphemes only. M_an__darin ta chi 1e fan He ate the meal he eat past meal A synthetic language is one in which words can be formed by the addition of one or more affixes. Synthetic morphological systems can be further characterized as being primarily agglutinating, fiisional 0r polysynthetic. An agglutinating system (eg. Hungarian, Swahili, Turkish) is one in which affixes are easily separated from stems and typically encode a single identifiable meaning or grammatical function. M11. oda-lar-im—dan from my rooms room-plural- 1st sg.-direction Fusional systems (eg. Latin, Spanish, Russian) are those in which affixes are not easily separated from stems and often simultaneously encode more than one meaning or grammatical function. Russian cita-l He was reading read—past masculine sg. A polysynthetic, or incorporating, system (eg. Inuktitut, Cree, Sora) is one in which words can be formed by combining several roots and affixes that often express a meaning that corresponds to entire sentences in other languages. Inuktitut quasu-ir-sar-vig-ssar-si-ngit—luinar—nar-puq Someone did not find an entirely suitable resting place tired-not-cause—place—suitable—find-not-complete-someone-3dsg. 4. Other Types of Word Formation In addition to affixation and compounding, other types of word formation processes include reduplication, internal change, suppletion, acronymy, blending, clipping, back formation and conversion. 5 . Reduplication Reduplication is a process that involves copying all or part of a stem. In cases where an entire base is reduplicated, the process is referred to as total reduplication. Afrikaans amper nearly amperamper very nearly dik thick dikdik very thick Word formation in which only a part of a base is reduplicated is referred to as partial reduplication. Chamorro kanno eat kakanno eater tuge write tutuge writer 6. Internal Change Internal change (or ablaut ) is characterized by the substitution of one or more sounds in a morpheme in order to express a morphological contrast. mouse/mice sing/sang 7 . Suppletion Suppletion is the replacement of one form of a morpheme with another that has no systematic phonetic similarity in order to express a morphological contrast. good/better go/went 8 . Acronymy An acronym is a word that is formed by combining the initial part of some or all of the words in a phrase. NATO < Horth Atlantic Ireaty Qrganization OPEC < oil producing and exporting countries 9 . Blending Blending is a process in which words are formed by combining parts of different words (usually the first part of one word and the final part of another). motel < motor hog smog < s_moke and fog 10.Clipping Clipping is a process in which a word is formed by deleting one or more syllables from an existing word. gym < gymnasium math < mathematics 1 1 . Back Formation Back formation refers to the process of forming words by deleting a real or imagined affix based on analogy with other existing words in the language. donate < donation edit < editor 1 2. Conversion Conversion (also referred to as zero derivation) is a process whereby an existing word is assigned to another lexical category without changing the basic form of the word. combN > combV permitV > permitN - Associated Reading Chapter 2 pp. 48-67 ...
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Summary_Handout_05 - Ling 1000 6.0 05 Introduction to...

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