Summary_Handout_07 - Ling 1000 6.0 07 Introduction to...

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Unformatted text preview: Ling. 1000 6.0 07 Introduction to Linguistics 1. Complement vs. Adjunct Dependent expressions within a phrase can be classified as complements or adjuncts. A complement is a dependent that expresses a meaning that is directly implied by the meaning properties of the syntactic head with which it occurs. An adjunct (or, modifier) is a dependent that express a meaning which is not directly implied by the meaning properties of a syntactic head. 2. Verb Complements Objects and predicatives are inherently verb complements. Adverbials can be complements or adjuncts (depending on whether or not the meaning that an adverbial expresses is required/directly implied by the verb with which it occurs). Fred put the book on the shelf (verb complement) Max is in the store (verb complement) Ed left earlier (verb adjunct) She spoke very slowly (verb adjunct) 3. Subcategorization Subcategorization refers to the specification of the number and types of complements that can or must occur with a given word. Information of this type is an idiosyncratic property of individual words and can be represented by means of a subcategorization frame (where the underscored line represents the position of the word in question). sleep see eat sleep:V[__] see:V[_NP] eat:V[_(NP)] Bob is sleeping They saw a play She ate dinner *Bob is sleeping the bed *They saw/are seeing She ate/is eating send be put send:V [ _ (NP)NP] be: V [ __ AP/NP/PP] put:V [ _ NP PPLOC] Ken sent Connie a cake Helen is intelligent Mona put the car in the garage Ken sent a cake Helen is an electrician *Mona put/is putting *Ken sent/is sending Helen is in the garage *Mona put/is putting in the garage *Helen is *Mona put/is putting the car Subcategorization accounts for why a given word cannot occur in certain syntactic constructions even though these may otherwise be well—formed (eg. Herman saw Fred vs. *Herman saw where see cannot occur without a following NP complement). 4. Word Order Languages can be classified according to the relative ordering of subject, verb and object within active declarative sentences. Of the six logically possible word orders, only SOV, SVO and VSO are well attested cross-linguistically. VOS word order is observered in a small number of languages (roughly 2% of the world's languages) while OVS and OSV word orders are virtually unattested. 5. Word Order and Implicational Universals The ordering of heads and dependents within phrases correlates roughly with the relative ordering of a verb and its object, with OV languages tending to be head final and V0 languages tending to be head initial. Some cross—linguistic tendencies characteristic of the different word order types include the following: VO 0V V precedes object NP within VP V follows object NP within VP P precedes NP within PP P follows NP within PP N precedes AP within NP N follows AP within NP N precedes possessive modifer within NP N follows possessive modifier within NP The above represent statistical tendencies only, and many languages which are primarily head initial or head final may illustrate one or more syntactic features that are indicative of the other general word order type. English, for example, is an SVO language but within a NP, the head N generally occurs after rather than before an AP modifier eg. young adults vs. *adults young. 0 Associated Reading Chapter 3 pp. 94-109 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course LING 1000 taught by Professor Tom during the Fall '08 term at York University.

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Summary_Handout_07 - Ling 1000 6.0 07 Introduction to...

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