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Summary_Handout_10 - Ling 1000 6.0 10 Introduction to...

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Unformatted text preview: Ling. 1000 6.0 10 Introduction to Linguistics 1. Generative Grammar Knowledge of language can be characterized as a memorized list of, syntactic, semantic and phonological properties of individual morphemes together with a generalized set of rules, principles and contraints that account for their combination, interpretation and pronunciation within words, phrases and sentences. This conception of grammar, referred to as generative grammar, can be schematized as follows: Lexicon morpheme: - syntactic category - subcategorization - meaning 0 phonological form Word Formation ll Merge ll d-structure ll Movement U S - Structure Phonological Semantic Rules Interpretation The set of rules, principles and constraints that characterize speaker knowledge of language constitutes a formal description of a speaker's internalized grammar. 2. D-Structure vs. S-Structure In order to account for speaker knowledge of sentence structure, it is necessary to assume two levels of syntactic representaton, referred to as d-structure and s-structure. D-structure representations are formed by merging constituents in accordance with the subcategorization requirements of syntactic heads. Basic meaning relations between constituents are encoded at this level of representation. S—structure representations are formed from a corresponding d-structure representation by means of movemement rules (in the event that movement is not involved in the formation of a given sentence, its d-structure and s-structure representations are essentially equivalent ). Types of syntactic movement operations that occur in language include Subject-Auxiliary Inversion, Wh-Movement and NP-Movement. 3. Inversion Structures and Subject-Auxiliary Inversion An English inversion structure is characterized by a tensed verb (auxiliary or lexical be) occurring before rather than after a subject. Should I tell Felicia Has Clair told Wally Are they going with us Is anyone there A fronted verb can be argued to occupy the same position as a complementizer and to have been moved to this position by means of a rule of Subject-Auxiliary Inversion (SAI). SAI: move the initial auxiliary in a clause into an empty C position (represented by the null symbol fl) Note: inversion can also apply to lexical be if there is no auxiliary Inversion structures are assumed to have the syntactic form of a CP. The underlying position from which an auxiliary is moved is represented by means of the symbol t (short for trace) while movement, and the direction of movement, is indicated by means of an arrow (Note: where the fronted verb is auxiliary do, the auxiliary is assumed to have been inserted by a rule of Do-Support ). eg. Has Claire told Wally? D.S. )3 5.8. X C S C S /\ l /\ NP V NP VP is (Q It VA“: fl = /\ l v NP v NP ' i l l I l N 0 Claire has told Wally has Claire t told Wally T_____l SAI 4. Wh-Structures and Wh-Movement An English wh-structure is characterized by the presence of a wh-constituent in clause initial position (a wh-constituent is one that contains a wh-word eg. who, whom, what, when where, why, which, whose and how). When are they leaving? On which day will they arrive? A fronted wh-constituent is assumed to occur under CP (since these can occur before a fronted auxiliary) and to have been moved to this position by means of a rule of wh-movement. Wh-Movement: move a wh-constituent to CF eg. What should I say to Marvin? D.S. CP S.S. CP A. /l\ C S NP C S NPA VP \l NP/\VP V VP V VP .,/1\ a /1\ PN V NP PP PN V NP PP /\ /\ P NP P NP 3 l N | N G I should say what to Marvin what Sh(}1{ld I t say t to Marvin |__l SAI Wh-Mvt The underlying position from which a wh-constituent is moved corresponds to the semantic function that it expresses. Possible functions associated with wh-constituents include are verb dependent, preposition complement and subject. Verb Dependent Who( m) will John see t (cf. John will see Bill) What was John watching t (cf. John was watching a film) When is Bill leaving t (cf. Bill is leaving soon) Why is Bill leaving t (cf. Bill is leaving because he is needed at home) Preposition Complement Where has Syd come from t (Cf. Syd has come from the doctor’s.) Who has Jane given it to t (cf. Jane gave it to Fred.) Subject Who t saw John (cf. Bill saw John.) What t fell? (cf. The book fell.) If functioning as a preposition complement, a wh—word can be moved separately from or together with the preposition head. Who should I give this package [ to t ] [To whom] should I give this package t Wh-movement can also apply in embedded clauses. Karin knows [what you did t ] ’I‘______l Wh-Mvt 5. Passive Structures and NP-Movement An English passive is one in which the main verb is in its past participle form and is preceded in the same clause by some form of auxiliary be. An additional, cross linguistic, feature of a passive clause is that the syntactic subject corresponds to a subcategorized verb object. Jane put the car in the garage active The car was put in the garage passive The car was put in the garage by Jane passive The syntactic subject of a passive is assumed to occur in object position at d-structure and to be moved to an empty subject position by means of a rule of NP—movement. NP-Movement: move an object NP into an empty subject position eg. The car was sold by Sherman D.S. S 8.8. S A A NP VP NP VP V VP D N V VP /1\ /l\ V NP PP => , V NP PP /\ /\ _/\ D N P NP P NP I ’ ' l l N l N Q) was sold the car by Sherman theAcar was sold t by Sherman |___.______l NP-Mvt NP-movement applies in embedded clauses as well as matrix clauses. Sam said [that the house was rented t ] /\ |___—| NP-Mvt Associated Reading Chapter 3 pp. 116-124 ...
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