Transformations - Table 5.10 gives examples of some other...

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Unformatted text preview: Table 5.10 gives examples of some other adjectives, nouns, and prepositions that can take CP complements. Table 5.10 Some As, Ns, and Ps permitting CP complements Items Example with CP complement Adjectives afraid, certain, aware, confident They are afraid [cp that Eric left]. Nouns claim, belief, fact, knowledge, proof, They lack proof [Cp that Eric left]. conclusion Prepositions over, about They argued over [Cp whether Eric had left]. Although structures of this sort are common in English and other languages, we will restrict our attention in the remainder of this chapter to embedded Clauses that are complements of Vs. i, 3 TRANSFORMATIONS Although phrase structure rules interact with the set of complement options permitted by individual heads to form a very wide range of patterns, there are syntactic phenomena that they cannot describe in an entirely satisfactory way. This section considers two such phenomena and discusses the changes that ‘5“ must be made in order to accommodate them. 3.1 Inversion in yes-n0 questions To begin, let us consider the English yes—no questions exemplified in 29 ). (These structures are called yes-n0 questions because the expected response is usually ‘yes’ or ‘no’.) 29) a. Will the boy leave? b. Can the cat climb this tree? These sentences have an auxiliary verb to the left of the subject rather than in the specifier position of the VP, as in 30).3 30) a. The boy [will leave]. b. The cat [can climb this tree]. Our phrase structure rules place the auxiliary in the appropriate position in 30), but not in 29). How does the word order found in the former sentences come about? i SYNTAX ‘1‘ 173 "; . g. i i i The question structures that we are considering are built in two steps. In the first step, the usual phrase structure rules are used to form a structure in which the Aux occupies its normal position within the VP. This allows us to capture the fact that even in question structures it functions as a specifier, making more precise the meaning of the verb. S /\ NP VP /\ /\ Del N V v P l l l l the boy will leave Figure 5.19 The second step in the formation of question structures requires a trans- formation, a special type of rule that can move an element from one position to another. In the case we are considering, a transformation known as Inversion moves the Aux from its position within the VP to a position to the left of the subject. For now, we can formulate this transformation as follows. 31 ) Inversion: Move Aux to the left of the subject NP. depicted in figure 5.19, yielding the sentence to the left of the subject NP—the position (The arrow shows the movement brought aw a tree diagram for surface Inversion applies to the structure in 32) with the auxiliary verb appropriate for a question structure. about by Inversion. For now, we will not try to dr structures that have undergone a transformation.) 32 ) Will the boy leave? t least two advantages. First, we do not f auxiliary verbs in English: those that d those that occur next to the verb as es function as specifiers of the The transformational analysis has a have to say that there are two types 0 occur at the beginning of the sentence an its specifier. Rather, we can say that all auxiliari verb, consistent with the simple analysis in section 1.2. Those sentences that have an auxiliary verb to the left of the subject simply undergo an ‘extra’ process—the Inversion transformation that moves the auxiliary from its posi- tion within the VP in order to signal a question. Second, the transformational analysis automatically captures the fact” known to all speakers of English—that the sentence Will the boy leave is the question str'ucture corresponding to The boy will leave. According to the analysis presented here, both sentences have exactly the same structure after the application of the p hrase structure rules. They differ only in that anBfSlO“ has applied to move the auxiliary verb in the question structure. CHAPTER FIVE '3‘ eps. In the e in which to capture tking more ires a trans- 16 position to as Inversion ' .he left of the S. g the sentence “the posmon ement brought -am for surface First, we do not glish: those that xt to the verb as specifiers of the :e sentences that dergo an ‘extra' 1y from its 905" )tures the fact—— 2 boy leave is the \ccording to the ne structure after I in that Inversion Jl'e . 3.2 Deep structure and surface structure The preceding examples show that at least some sentences must be analysed with the help of two distinct rule systems—phrase structure rules, which determine the internal structure of phrasal categories, and transformations, which can modify these tree structures by moving an element from one position to another. If we think about this in terms of the architecture of sentence structure, the transformational analysis is claiming that there are two levels of syntactic structure. The first, called deep structure, is formed by the phrase structure rules in accordance with the head’s subcategorization properties. As we will see in the chapter on semantics, deep structure plays a special role in the interpretation of sentences. The second level of syntactic structure corresponds to the final syntactic form of the sentence. Called surface structure, it results from applying what— ever transformations are appropriate for the sentence in question. The deep structure for both the sentence The boy will leave and the corre- sponding question structure Will the boy leave? is given in figure 5.20. S /\ NP VP /\ //\ Det N \/ VP city the boy will leave Figure 5.20 The surface structure for the question pattern is then formed by applying the Inversion transformation, yielding 33). 33) Will the boy leave? L4 In contrast, the statement pattern The boy will leave has a surface structure (fi— nal syntactic form) that looks just like its deep structure since no transforma— tions apply. The following diagram depicts the organization of the syntactic component of the grammar as it has just been outlined. Phrase Structure Rules l DEEP STRUCTURE (— (Subcategorization restricts i choice of complements) Transformations i - SURFACE STRUCTURE Figure 5.21 The syntactic component of the grammar SYNTAX ’3‘ 175 As this diagram shows, the grammar makes use of different syntactic mecha— s. Some of these mechanisms are responsible for the architecture of hers for the determination of a head's for the movement of nism phrases (phrase structure rules), ot possible complements (subcategorization), and still others categories within syntactic structure (transformations). Consider now the set of question constructions exemplified in 34). These sen- Wh tences are called wh questions because of the presence of a question word beginning with wh. 34) a. Which car should the man flx‘? b. What can the child sit on? Do the deep structures associated with 34a) and 3 4b ) resemble the surface form different? Within the system of syntactic of these sentences or are they quite 34) have the deep structures illustrated analysis we are using. the sentences in in figure 5.22. (We treat the wh words who and what as simple nouns and which as a determiner.) a s / b s ////\\ VP NP VP V? f vf NP NP PP /\ '//\ \ / \ Det N V V Det N NP l l l l 1 l l N P N the man should fix which car Det l l l l l l the child can sit on what Figure’5.22 According to these deep structures, which car occurs as complement of the verb fix in figure 5 .22a while what appears as complement of the preposition on in figure 5.22b. This captures an important fact about the meanings of these h car asks about the thing that was fixed in the first case while what asks about the location where the child can sit in the second case. A second argument in favour of this analysis involves subcategorization. sider in this regard the following sentences. sentences since whic Con 35) a. *The man should fix. I). *The child can sit on. entences are somehow incomplet h problem with the w thout an NP comple' e wi . Wthh Notice that these s h questions in 34), merit. However. there is no suc CHAPTER FIVE 0:. ic mecha- tecture of a head’s .vement of These sen- :stion word ;urface form of syntactic :s illustrated as and which on what plement of the ; preposition 0n anings of these in the first case ie second case. ‘ )categorization. Wh Movement of PPS suggests that the wh phrases must be fulfilling the complement function in these sentences. The deep structures in figure 5.22 capture this fact by treating the wh phrase as complement of the verb in the first pattern and complement of the preposition in the second. In order to convert thesevdeep structures into the corresponding surface structures, we need a transformation that will move the wh phrase from its position in deep structure to a position at the beginning of the sentence. The transformation in question, called Wh Movement, can be formulated as follows. 36) Wk Movement: Move the wh phrase to the beginning of the sentence. By applying Wh Movement and Inversion to the deep structure in figure 5.22a, we can form the desired question structure. 3 7) Which car should the man fix ? I Inversion Wh Movement Application of the same two transformations to the deep structure in figure 5.22b yields the wh question in 38). 38) What can the child sit on ? 1 Sometimes, more than one wh question can be formed from the same deep structure. Consider in this regard the deep structure in figure 5.22b above, repeated here. S W \/P NP PP MP Det N V P IL it l 2. l, t Figure 5.23 We have already seen that we can form the sentence What can the child sit on? by fronting the wh word what and applying Inversion. However, this is not the only sentence that can be formed from this deep structure. By treating the PP on what as a wh phrase and moving it to the front of the sentence, it is possible to form the slightly different sentence in 39). SYNTAX '3' 177 39) On what can the child sit ? We see, then, that by allowing Wh‘M that contains a wh word, it is possibl tences from the same deep structure. ovement to apply to either an NP or a PP e to form two distinct grammatical sen— Up until now, our discussion of transformations has left unsettled an interesting t . “ A technical issue. Reconsider in this regard the simple yes-no question exempli— look at fied in 40). 40) transformations warms, rem? L/J when it is moved by Inversion to h as 40) are simple Ss, no ect since the he auxiliary verb ‘land’ assume that sentences suc fronted auxiliary to the left of the subj consist just of an NP and a VP. In what position does t the left of the subject? If we position is available for the S rule (S ——> NP VP) says that an S should Anothef look at This problem can be solved if we assume that all Ss occur Within 1 , . ' de icted in ft ure 5.24. lnversmn " g l CP //\ l C S t \ § NP VP Det N V V? l t t t V the boy Will leave Figure 5.24 that all 85 occur within a CP. cture, we take the position or not. It may help to th layer of structure around an S. CP can contain an overt complementizer in the CP shell is presen By adopting this stru whether they are embedded ‘shell’ that forms an outer within a larger sentence, the that or whether. Elsewhere, the C position simply left empty. It is into this em questions. Thus, the Inversion transforma ink of the CP category as a When embedded such as t but is liary verb is moved in yes—n0 pty position that the auxi d as follows. tion can be reformulate CHAPTER FIVE ‘1’ 41 ) Inversion (revised): Move Aux to C. . 3 pp ' According to this proposal, then, the sentence Will the boy leave? is formed by ‘3 l gem applying the Inversion transformation to the deep structure in figure 5.24 above to give the surface structure in figure 5.25. 1 CP 'eSting /\ . NP VP empll- i ‘ //\ A \/ Det N V v P llllQ/ ; will the boy i leave 1 T___ l rsion t0 ‘ Figure 5.25 3 Ss, no xnce the i] A transformation can do no more than change an element’s position. It does not JP. change the categories of any words and it cannot eliminate any part of the 1 structural configuration created by the phrase structure rules. Thus, will remains an Aux even though it is moved into the C position, and the specifier position. i ‘CPS, as that it formerly occupied remains in the tree structure. Marked by the symbol‘é (for ‘empty’) and called a trace, it records the fact that the moved element comes from the Specifier position within the VP. Why do we attach 3 moved Aux to the C position rather than some other part of sentence structure? The answer lies in the embedded CPS in sentences such as the following. 42) a. The coach wonders [Cp i_f the girl should stay]. b. A fan asked [Cp whether the team will win]. The underlined elements in these CPS are complementizers and therefore occur in the C position. Assuming that there can be only one element in each position in a tree structure, there should be no room for the moved Aux under the C label in the embedded CPS in 42). We therefore predict that Inversion should not be thin a CP: able to apply in these cases. The ungrammaticality of the sentences in 43) egory as a shows that this is correct. embedded 43) ET web as Inversion in embedded CPS that include complementizers: $6M bUt ‘5 a. *The coach wonders [CF if—Should the girl stay]. T__ l _- in yes—"0 b. *A fan asked [Cp whether-will the team win]. 18 follows. SYNTAX 4' I79 the acceptability of Inversion in embedded CPS improves Interestingly, (and the C position is quite dramatically when there is no complementizer therefore open to receive the moved Aux). 44) , Inversion in embedded CPS that do not have complementizers: a. The coach wondered [CF would the team win]. I). A fan asked [Cy will the team win]. LEE.J Although some speakers prefer not to apply Inversion in embedded clauses at all (especially in formal speech), most speakers of English find the sentences in 44) to be much more natural than those in 43). This is just what we would ex- pect if Inversion must move the Aux to an empty C position, as required by our analysis. ' To summarize before continuing, we have introduced two changes into the system of syntactic analysis used until now. First, we assume that all Ss occur inside CPS. Second, we assume that the Inversion transformation moves the auxiliary from its position within VP to an empty C position to the left of the subject NP. This not only gives the correct word order for question structures, it helps explain why inversion sounds so unnatural when the C position is already filled by another element, as in 43). Another look at Now reconsider the wh question pattern in 45). Movement 45). Which car should the man fix ? ri'Ls,,J ansformation of Wh Movement moves the wh he left even of the fronted Aux, but place in the tree structure. We have already seen that the tr phrase to the beginning of the sentence, to t we have not attempted to determine its precise Given that the moved Aux is located in the C position (see above), it seems reasonable to conclude that the fronted wh phrase is in the specifier position of CP (this being the only position to the left of the C). Certainly, we know that this position is available to receive the moved wh phrase: because there is no class of words that serves as specifier of C, this position will always be empty in deep structure prior to the application of Wh Movement. We therefore reformulate the Wh Movement transformation as follows. 46) Wk Movement (revised): Move a wh phrase to the specifier position under CP. The sentence Which car should the man fix? can now be analysed in steps: the first of which involves formation of the deep structure depicted in figure 5.26. Consistent with our earlier assumption, the S here occurs within a CP Shell CHAPTER FIVE '3' improves msition is iclauses at ' entences in : would ex— iired by our ges into the all 85 occur 1 moves the re left of the structures, it on is already uwmwiww. . . . t . n...“ “mam moves the wh onted Aux, bm structure. rove), it seems - fier position of CP /\ C S /\ NP 'VP NP /\ Det N \/ v Det N i l | t | the man should fix which car Figure 5.26 Wh Movement and Inversion then apply to this deep structure, yielding the surface structure in figure 5.27. Note that the Aux has moved to the C position and the wh phrase to the specifier position within CP. CP \ C S /\ NP NP VP Det N V Det N v V’\NP | i | l I l | l Which car should the man é fix t4 T M | Figure 5.27 Like other transformations, Wh Movement cannot eliminate any part of the structural configuration formed by the phrase structure rules. The position occupied by the wh phrase in deep structure is therefore not lost. Rather, it remains as a trace (an empty category), indicating that the moved element corresponds to the complement of the verb fix. ‘ we know that 3.5 use there is no ways be empty ‘ Constraints on transformations (Advanced) as follows. sed in stepS, the din figure 5.26. , 'm a CP shell. Interestingly, there are certain contexts in which transformations are unable to operate. As a preliminary illustration of this, consider the following two pairs of sentences. 47) a. Carl should see [a picture of Dracula]. b. Who should Carl see [a picture of ]? L? 48) a. [A picture of Dracula] could frighten John. b. *Who could [a picture of __] frighten John? T_______ SYNTAX '3‘ 181 t” It, ...
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Transformations - Table 5.10 gives examples of some other...

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