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Chem4711(NoteSet5)

Chem4711(NoteSet5) - Enzymes Enzymology is the study of...

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2/24/11 Enzymes Enzymology is the study of enzymes. Enzymes are the biological catalysts for essentially all intracellular reactions. (RNA occasionally) Enzymes are often important drug targets. Important aspects of catalysis: - theory of rate acceleration - how enzymes are amazing - how they do it.
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2/24/11 Allosteric sites – regulate activity of active site. Active site Exclude H2O Lids, conformational changes The forces that an enzyme uses to catalyze a reaction are identical to those used in protein folding. Chemistry used is typically simple organic chemistry Active and allosteric sites are small relative to protein.
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2/24/11 Features of catalysis: Highly specific – stereochemistry and specific structure Massive rate enhancements Enzyme activity is highly regulated Amount of enzyme. Allosteric regulation T state – low activity R state – high activity Some enzymes just use 20 A.A. for catalysis Some enzymes use cofactors Small molecule (usually) that enzyme uses for a key chemical step in catalysis.
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2/24/11 Enzymes activation energy = net rxn energy = Enzymes accelerate the rate of reaction without changing the equilibrium Enzymes do not appear in the stoichiometry of the reaction. Reaction coordinate ener gy S P Kinetics: how fast S and P interconvert Thermodynamics: how much S and P at equilibrium G G
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2/24/11 Enzymes do not change the net rxn energy. They do not alter the thermodynamics of the rxn. Enzymes lower the activation energy = a kinetic effect. Picture 4 Chemical bonds are being made and/ or broken Chemical bonds are fully formed Uncatalyzed reaction
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2/24/11 Microscopic Reversibility All reactions are reversible.
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