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bio lecture notes 1

bio lecture notes 1 - ScientificMethod WhatisScience...

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Scientific Method What is Science? A body of knowledge An approach to understanding nature Process, way to understand nature (scientific method)… information is the result What do scientists do?  make observations   (within the boundaries of science – only deals with  phenomena that can be observed- … connection                       with technology )  attempt to discern patterns   assume that the future is like the past  *laws of nature will remain  stable (not 100% garunteed) Scientific Method: What are the basic steps of the method? * inherently circular observations…  generalization or model (explanation)… predicative statements [predictions] or hypotheses… tests… leads to another observation…
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What is the outcome of this process? Model gets better with new observations [no fundamental truths or proof, but more accurate models] Terminology Hypothesis Explanation Untested Best guess Very little or no data to back it up Theory Hypothesis that has been tested many many times and is supported  Pretty sure [not faultless] Law                 Theory that has been tested even more and is always supported What is Biology? The study of life What is Life?  “this is a hard question!”    [not dead] What are the characteristics of Life? Living systems… Organization ** Energy use ** Development Evolution Reproduction ** Response to environment ** (you poke it!)
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BASIC CHEMISTRY: We are going to begin by using a reductionist approach. Reductionist- understand the pieces and then understand big picture Holist- some properties need whole picture to be seen *need both Scale of Nature: What are the sizes of biologically important structures atomic 10 -8  m community/ecosystem 10 6  m Log Scale Solubility (DEMO) "Like dissolves Like" in terms of polarity ATOMS : Smallest unit of matter separable by normal chemical means. Smallest unit of an element that retains all of the elements properties. atomic structure is important in biology: *organisms are composed largely of 11 basic elements the value for an average human (based on elemental composition) is $930.00… but we are specifically  organized piles of chemicals  An atom is composed of many smaller particles. subatomic particles particle mass electric charge proton 1 dalton     +1 neutron 1 dalton     0
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electron ~ 0 daltons     -1 (1/10000 dalton) Atomic Structure : Bohr Model This model has electrons moving in orbitals or shells around the nucleus. The electrons always try to be in the lowest orbital or energy shell (that is closest to the nucleus).
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