notes 2 - Chapter4 AqueousReactions Ioniccompound=metal...

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Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions Properties of Aqueous Solutions The  solvent  is the majority material  The  solute  is the minority species The entire mixture in called the  solution Ionic Compounds in Water Ionic compound = metal + non-metal, or polyatomic ion When ionic compounds are dissolved in water, the ions separate The ions become surrounded by water o Polar water molecule orients itself to surround ions in a  hydration sphere Molecular Compounds in Water Molecular compound = all non-metal atoms, no polyatomic ions Molecular compounds stay together in water (they do no break up into  ions) Strong, Weak, and non-Electrolytes Materials are classified as strong, weak, or non-electrolyte depending  on the electrical conductivity of a solution of a compound in water
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NON-ELECTROLYTES o Typically molecular compounds o Solution does not conduct electricity well o The material in solution may dissolve, but  does not create ions o Ex: sugar, methanol, ethyl alcohol STRONG ELECTROLYTES o Ionic compounds o Fully dissolve  and  completely ionize o Ex: salts like NaCl, strong acids like HCl, and strong bases like  NaOH STRONG ACIDS HCl     hydrochloric HBr     hydrobromic HI       hydroiodic HClO 3   chloric HClO 4   perchloric HNO 3    nitric H 2 SO 4   sulfuric STRONG BASES HF       hydrofluoric HCHO 2  formic HC 7 H 5 O 2  benzoic
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WEAK ELECTROLYTES o Ionic materials o Highly soluble but only  partially ionize o Ex: weak acids like HF and weak bases like NH 3   o Only a fraction of a percent actually dissociate to ions, making  solution with low concentration of ions… poor conductivity Determining Electrolyte Status o Is it an acid or a base? Is it a weak acid or base? (weak electrolyte) Is it a strong acid or base? (strong electrolyte) o Is it an ionic compound? Strong electrolyte o Is it a molecular compound? Non-Electrolyte Conductivity in aqueous solution Conductivity measures the ability of a medium to conduct an electrical  current Conductivity (C) is defined as the reciprocal of resistance (R) C = 1 / R For an aqueous solution, the flow of charge is determined by the  movement of the ions through the solution The molar conductivity ( Λ m ) can be written as a sum of separate  conductivities from individual ions The ionic equivalent conductivities are determined by…
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o The charge carried by the ion o The mobility of the ion through aqueous media Charged ions tend to create a structure in the polar water molecules
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