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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Nine: Strengthen, Justify the Conclusion, and Assumption Questions The Second Family With this chapter, we begin our exposition of the Second Family of questions. Three of the question types within this familyStrengthen, Justify, and Assumptionare considered to be among the hardest Logical Reasoning question types. These three question types are closely related and will be examined consecutively in this chapter. The remaining Second Family question typeResolve the Paradoxwill be examined in the next chapter. Although all Second Family question types are related by their shared information model, there are distinct differences between each question type that ultimately determine the exact nature of the correct answer. Your performance on these questions will depend on your ability to distinguish each question type and understand the task you must fulfill. Some students compare the Second Family information model diagram to the Third Family (Weaken) model and assume the two groups are exact opposites. While Strengthen and Weaken questions require you to perform opposite tasks, there are many similarities between the two types in terms of how information is used in each question. Assumption and Justify questions are variations on the Strengthen theme. In addition to the Primary Objectives, keep these fundamental rules in mind when approaching Strengthen, Justify the Conclusion, and Assumption questions: 1. The stimulus will contain an argument. Because you are being asked about the authors reasoning, and reasoning requires a conclusion, an argument will always be present. In order to maximize your chances of success you must identify, isolate, and assess the premises and the conclusion of the argument. Only by understanding the structure of the argument can you gain the perspective necessary to understand the authors position. 2. Focus on the conclusion. Almost all correct answer choices impact the conclusion. The more you know about the specifics of the conclusion, the better armed you will be to differentiate between correct and incorrect ans. 3. The information in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors present, and you must read the argument very carefully in order to know how to shore up the argument. 4. These questions often yield strong prephrases. Make sure you actively consider the range of possible answers before proceeding to the answer choices. 5. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include new information. Like Weaken questions, the answer choices to the problems in this chapter can bring into consideration information outside of or tangential to the stimulus. Just because a fact or idea is not mentioned in the stimulus is not grounds for dismissing an answer choice....
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- Spring '09