16 LED-slide-show

16 LED-slide-show - Light Emitting Diodes and Solid-State...

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1 Light Emitting Diodes and Solid-State Lighting E. Fred Schubert Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 Phone: 518 276 8775 Email: EFSchubert@rpi edu Internet: www LightEmittingDiodes org Phone: 518-276-8775 Email: EFSchubert@rpi.edu Internet: www.LightEmittingDiodes.org 1 of 164 Solid-state lighting ! Inorganic devices: Semiconductor plus phosphor illumination devices All-semiconductor-based illumination devices ! Organic devices: Remarkable successes in low power devices Remarkable successes in low-power devices (Active matrix OLED monitors, thin-film transistors, etc.) Substantial effort is underway to demonstrate high-power devices Anticipated manufacturing cost and luminance of organic devices are orders of magnitude different from inorganic devices Comp. Semiconductors, 2006 Predicted growth of LED market 2 of 164
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2 OLED versus LED LEDs are point sources They are blindingly bright Suitable for imaging-optics applications Osram Corp. OLEDs are area sources They do do not blind Suitable for large-area sources Opto TechCorp. ! Luminance of OLEDs: 10 2 –10 4 cd/m 2 ! Luminance of LEDs: 10 6 – 10 7 cd/m 2 ! Luminance of OLEDs is about 4 orders of magnitude lower ! OLED manufacturing cost per unit area must be 10 4 ! lower OLEDs Low-cost reel-to-reel manufacturing LEDs Expensive epitaxial growth 3 of 164 Quantification of solid-state lighting benefits ! Energy benefits 22 % of electricity used for lighting LED-based lighting can be 20 ! more efficient than incandescent and 5 " ! more efficient than fluorescent lighting ! Environmental and economic benefits Reduction of CO 2 emissions, a global warming gas Reduction of SO 2 emissions, acid rain Reduction of Hg emissions by coal-burning power plants Reduction of hazardous Hg in homes ! Financial benefits Electrical energy cost reduction, but also savings resulting from less pollution, global warming Antarctica United States Hg Cause: CO 2 Switzerland CO 2 ,SO 2 , NO x , Hg, U Czech Republic Cause: SO 2 Cause: Waste heat and acid rain 4 of 164
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3 Quantification of benefits Global benefits enabled by solid-state lighting technology over period of 10 years. First numeric value in each box represents annual US value. The USA uses about ¼ of world’s energy. Savings under “11% scenario” Reduction in total energy consumption 43.01 ! 10 18 J ! 11% ! 4 ! 10 = = 189.2 ! 10 18 J Reduction in electrical energy consumption 457.8 TWh ! 4 ! 10 = = 18,310 TWh = 65.92 ! 10 18 J Financial savings 45.78 ! 10 9 $ ! 4 ! 10 = = 1,831 ! 10 9 $ Reduction in CO 2 emission 267.0 Mt ! 4 ! 10 = 10.68 Gt Reduction of crude-oil consumption (1 barrel = 159 liters) 24.07 ! 10 6 barrels ! 4 ! 10 = = 962.4 ! 10 6 barrels Number of power plants not needed 70 ! 4 = 280 ( * ) 1.0 PWh = 1000 TWh = 11.05 PBtu = 11.05 quadrillion Btu “=” 0.1731 Pg of C = 173.1 Mtons of C 1kgofC“=”[(12amu+2 ! 16 amu) / 12 amu] kg of CO 2 = 3.667 kg of CO 2 Schubert et al ., Reports on Progress in Physics 69 , 3069 (2006) 5 of 164 History of LEDs ! Henry Joseph Round (1881 – 1966) ! 1907: First observation of electroluminescence ! 1907: First LED !
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course EE 474 taught by Professor Lingo during the Spring '11 term at USC.

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16 LED-slide-show - Light Emitting Diodes and Solid-State...

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