Week-5-Lith1-1

Week-5-Lith1-1 - EE-504L :Solid State Processing and...

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EE-504L :Solid State Processing and Integrated Circuit Laboratory Dr. Kian Kaviani sieh Ming Dept of Electrical Hsieh Ming Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Southern California Viterbi School of Engineering 1/3/2011 Dr. Kian Kaviani Spring 2011 - EE504L 1
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Lithography: SIA Road map Year of the first DRAM Shipment 1999 2003 2006 2009 2012 DRAM Bits/Chip 1 G 4 G 16 G 64 G 256 G Minimum Feature (nm) 140 100 70 50 35 Defect Density (per layer /m # ) 8 06 05 04 03 0 Defect Size (nm) 60 40 30 20 15 DRAM Chip Size (mm # ) 400 560 790 1120 1580 MPU Chip Size (mm # ) 360 430 520 620 750 Field Size (mm) 25X32 25X36 25X40 25X44 25X52 Exposure Technology 248 nm 248 nm 193 nm 193 nm ? UV UV UV UV DUV DUV DUV DUV ? Minimum Mask Count 22/24 24 24/26 26/28 28 1/3/2011 Dr. Kian Kaviani Spring 2011 - EE504L 2
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hotolithography Photolithography I Photoresist Processing and Material Issues 1/3/2011 Dr. Kian Kaviani Spring 2011 - EE504L 3
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asic Concept Basic Concept hotoresist or simply resist represent Photoresist or simply resist represent polymeric materials that are sensitive to e irradiation by photons Depending on the irradiation by photons.Depending on the nature of the resist we expect to obtain ifferent profile for the developed resist different profile for the developed resist. There are two types of photo resist: ositive resist Positive resist • Negative resist 1/3/2011 Dr. Kian Kaviani Spring 2011 - EE504L 4
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ypes of Resists Types of Resists 1/3/2011 Dr. Kian Kaviani Spring 2011 - EE504L 5
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asics of Resists Basics of Resists onventional photoresists are polymeric Conventional photoresists are polymeric materials that are sensitive to lights are ade up of three components: made up of three components: atrix material or resin (mechanical property) • Matrix material or resin (mechanical property) • Photo active compound (PAC) (sensitivity to light) olvent (keeps the resist in a liquid phase) Solvent (keeps the resist in a liquid phase) 1/3/2011 Dr. Kian Kaviani Spring 2011 - EE504L 6
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1/3/2011 Dr. Kian Kaviani Spring 2011 - EE504L 7
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portant Properties of Resists Important Properties of Resists 1. Resolution 2. Contrast 3. Sensitivity 4. Etch Resistance 5. Thermal Stability 6. Adhesion 7. Solid Content & Viscosity 8. Process Latitude 9. Shelf Life 1/3/2011 Dr. Kian Kaviani Spring 2011 - EE504L 8
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. Resolution 1. Resolution Resolution is a measure which specifies the onsistent ability to print minimum ize images consistent ability to print minimum – size images under conditions of reasonable manufacturing variability The resolution of a lithographic process can be limited y the following factors: by the following factors: 1. The Hardware: 2. Optical Properties of the Resist 3. Process Characterization 1/3/2011 Dr. Kian Kaviani Spring 2011 - EE504L 9
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. Contrast 2. Contrast • Contrast Is the rate of polymer chain separation (positive resist) or rate of cross linked network formation per change in the irradiation dose • Both the contrast and sensitivity of resists are usually measured by exposing the resist layer of a given ickness to varying radiation doses and then measuring thickness to varying radiation doses and then measuring the film thickness left after a fixed development step.
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course EE 474 taught by Professor Lingo during the Spring '11 term at USC.

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Week-5-Lith1-1 - EE-504L :Solid State Processing and...

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