Armenia is located in the southern Caucasus and is the smallest of the former Soviet republics. It is
bounded by Georgia on the north, Azerbaijan on the east, Iran on the south, and Turkey on the west.
Contemporary Armenia is a fraction of the size of ancient Armenia. A land of rugged mountains and
extinct volcanoes, its highest point is Mount Aragats, 13,435 ft (4,095 m).
One of the world's oldest civilizations, Armenia once included Mount Ararat, which biblical tradition
identifies as the mountain that Noah's ark rested on after the flood. It was the first country in the world
to officially embrace Christianity as its religion (c. A.D. 300).
In the 6th century B.C., Armenians settled in the kingdom of Urartu (the Assyrian name for Ararat),
which was in decline. Under Tigrane the Great (fl. 95–55 B.C.) the Armenian empire reached its height
and became one of the most powerful in Asia, stretching from the Caspian to the Mediterranean seas.
Throughout most of its long history, however, Armenia has been invaded by a succession of empires.
Under constant threat of domination by foreign forces, Armenians became both cosmopolitan as well
as fierce protectors of their culture and tradition.
Over the centuries Armenia was conquered by Greeks, Romans, Persians, Byzantines, Mongols,
Arabs, Ottoman Turks, and Russians. From the 16th century through World War I, major portions of
Armenia were controlled by their most brutal invader, the Ottoman Turks, under whom the Armenians
experienced discrimination, religious persecution, heavy taxation, and armed attacks. In response to
Armenian nationalist stirrings, the Turks massacred thousands of Armenians in 1894 and 1896. The