presentation1 - Diet, Nutrition and Health Diet, by Stuart...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Diet, Nutrition and Health Diet, by Stuart Adams www.Nutra­Smart.net Introduction Introduction Feel free to ask any questions Make sure you understand Make Handouts provided in envelope Contain plenty of info covered today Contains extra info and resources Please Please fill out feedback questionnaire at the end the Contents Contents You are what you eat Why is nutrition so important? Leading causes of death What role diet plays Cardiovascular What Disease & Cancer are they? What role does diet play? Experimental How Methods do we know what foods are good? How do we know what foods are bad? Contents Contents Fruits and Veggies Which ones are best? How much should we eat? How to make them taste good Why vitamin pills are a waste of money Wholegrain Wholegrain Fibre Glycaemic How vs Refined Grain Index (GI) important is GI? Which foods are high, which are low? What about “low carb” diets? Calcium What & Osteoporosis Fish & “Omega 3” about Mercury? Contents Contents Good Fats vs Bad Fats How much? Which foods have what? What to look for on the labels Butter vs Margarine Is red meat good or bad? What Is about Sugar? it really that bad? Food Tasting Children's Issues Obesity Lunchbox Ideas Question Time Questions? Questions? Why is Diet and Nutrition Important? Important? “We are what we eat” Most of what we eat Most will be broken down and enter our blood stream, coming in contact with just about every cell in our body. every All our tissues and All organs will be affected by what we eat. by Why is Diet and Nutrition Important? Important? Stay Healthy? Colds and Flu’s? Most Diseases are not Most dietary related. dietary So what’s the point? Leading Causes of Death Leading Cancer Cancer ~30% ~30% Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) ~25% Coronary ~25% Stroke ~15% Stroke ~15% Others Others include: Influenza and Pneumonia, Heart Failure, Respiratory Diseases (Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema), Kidney Failure and Accidents (Poisoning, falls, MVA’s, workplace accidents etc) falls, Leading Causes of Death Leading Cancer Cancer ~30% ~30% Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) ~25% Coronary ~25% Stroke ~15% Stroke ~15% Leading Causes of Death Leading Cancer Cancer ~30% ~30% Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) ~25% Coronary ~25% Stroke ~15% Stroke ~15% Significant portion preventable through lifestyle changes. lifestyle DIET RELATED DISEASES DIET Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Cardiovascular Coronary Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) ~25% ~25% Stroke ~15% Stroke ~15% Combined Rate of Death from CVD = ~40% Combined ~40% The Circulatory System The Provides Provides all our tissues and cells with nutrients and oxygen carried through the blood stream. through Arteries carry oxygen rich blood from our lungs to the rest of our from body. body. Veins bring it back. Heart acts as pump. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Cardiovascular What causes Cardiovascular Disease? What ATHEROSCLEROSIS ATHEROSCLEROSIS Hardening and Narrowing of arteries • Leads to formation of plaque build up • Blood Clots Blood • Leads to Ischemia (lack of blood supply) • Causes Myocardial Infarction Causes (Heart attack) or Cerebral Infarction (Ischemic Stroke) (Heart • Stroke Stroke Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular What causes Cardiovascular Disease? ATHEROSCLEROSIS ATHEROSCLEROSIS • Starts to develop in early Starts 20’s 20’s • Difficult to reverse • Can be significantly Can slowed down slowed * animation animation Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Cardiovascular 2 Types of risk factors: - Non-Modifiable - Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Cardiovascular Non-Modifiable Risk Factors: Non-Modifiable Age - Risk increases with age Genetics - Family history may be influential. Sex -Males at greater risk. -Males -Females risk increases after menopause -Females Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular Modifiable Risk Factors Modifiable Smoking - Chemicals in tobacco smoke cause atherosclerosis Chemicals Inactivity - Exercise slows atherosclerotic growth Exercise Diabetes Obesity Blood Pressure - Hypertension (high blood pressure) Hypertension Abnormal Blood Lipids (Cholesterol) Abnormal - Elevated Total Cholesterol (TC), LDL “bad” cholesterol, Triglycerides, Homocystine, low HDL “good” cholesterol. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Cardiovascular Modifiable Risk Factors Modifiable ......and one more thing, Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Cardiovascular Modifiable Risk Factors Modifiable DIET DIET • • Avoiding the “bad” -Certain foods increase the risk Ensuring the “good” - Certain foods have a protective effect Cancer Cancer Cancer Cancer Approx 30% will die of Cancer Estimated that approx 30% of those can Estimated be preventable through lifestyle changes: be - Don’t Smoke - Limit alcohol intake - Moderate exercise - Screening - Limit exposure to carcinogens Limit (UV radiation, asbestos, fugally infected foods etc) infected Cancer Cancer ......and one more thing, Cancer Cancer DIET DIET • • Avoiding the “bad” -Certain foods increase the risk Ensuring the “good” - Certain foods have a protective effect Cancer: Australian Statistics Cancer: Lung Cancer – 6300 deaths per year Colon Cancer - 3300 deaths per year Breast Cancer - 2500 deaths per year Prostate Cancer - 2500 deaths per year Pancreatic Cancer- 1500 deaths per year Lymphoid Cancer - 1300 deaths per year Stomach Cancer - 1300 deaths per year Rectal Cancer - 1100 deaths per year Brain Cancer - 1000 deaths per year Melanoma - 900 deaths per year Cancer: Australian Statistics Cancer: Lung Cancer – 6300 deaths per year Colon Cancer - 3300 deaths per year Breast Cancer - 2500 deaths per year Prostate Cancer - 2500 deaths per year Pancreatic Cancer- 1500 deaths per year Lymphoid Cancer - 1300 deaths per year Stomach Cancer - 1300 deaths per year Rectal Cancer - 1100 deaths per year Brain Cancer - 1000 deaths per year Melanoma - 900 deaths per year Dietary Related Cancers Dietary Lung Cancer Colon Cancer Breast Cancer Prostate Cancer – 6300 deaths per year - 3300 deaths per year - 2500 deaths per year - 2500 deaths per year Stomach Cancer - 1300 deaths per year Rectal Cancer - 1100 deaths per year How do we know? How How How do we know what things increase or decrease the risk of cancer and CVD? decrease Scientific studies using a variety of Scientific methods. methods. They include: In Vitro Studies In In vitro (in glass): cultured cells in test tubes, Petri dish – add substances to them to observe their effect. to - e.g.; add green tea to cancer cells stops/ slows their growth. Pros: simply, quick, inexpensive Pros: Cons: unreliable (different effects in vivo) Cons: in Animal Studies Animal • Usually rodents: Compare the effects of Usually different diets. different - e.g.; Red wine given to rabbits prevents atherosclerosis. e.g.; - Cancer experiments: inoculated with Cancer tumours or exposed to carcinogens • Pros: More reliable than in vitro, Pros: in cheap, easy Cons: Different circumstances, Cons: different physiology and metabolism metabolism • Clinical Trials Clinical Compare Biomarkers (measurable risk factors) - e.g.: Nuts reduce e.g.: cholesterol levels cholesterol - Tomatoes reduce Prostate Specific Antigen Tomatoes (PSA) (PSA) Pro’s: Using Humans Cons: Markers not always reliable • • Intervention Studies Intervention • Compare disease/death rate after Compare treatment in high risk individuals (difficult to do with diets) to - e.g.: Fish oil, aspirin, statins etc, e.g.: decreases the rate of reoccurring heart attacks compared with placebo Epidemiology (population studies) Epidemiology Use Use surveys/questionnaires or interviews to collect information on diet (food frequency, 24 hour recall) lifestyle (smoking, drinking, exercise) and medical history (risk factors, other diseases etc). Adjust for risk factors. Adjust Two main types of epidemiological studies Prospective cohort study • Follow large number of people for Follow many years. Compare the diets of those who get the disease from those who don’t. those - Pro’s: Excellent accuracy, Pro’s: compares actual disease/death frequency however uses many people and healthy to start with. - Cons: Very long, very expensive, Cons Very difficult to maintain participation (volunteers need to be survey’s ever few years) ever Case-Control Study Case-Control • Survey large number of people with the Survey disease (cases) and compare with those without (control). - Pro’s: Compares actual disease/death rates, Pro’s: relatively inexpensive - Cons: Not as accurate as cohort because Cons: there’s not as many people and doesn’t compare long term habits. long That’s how we know That’s Only Only when the majority of large, well designed studies from all of these methods give similar findings, can we be certain. So…..what can we be certain of? (in terms So…..what of diet and nutrition) of The Do’s The Fruits, Vegetables and Legumes Fruits, • Studies from all methods Studies clearly indicate that diets clearly rich in fruits, vegetables rich and legumes have a range of health benefits range including: including: Fruits, Vegetables and Legumes Fruits, Decreases the risk of most cancers by ~30% Decreases the risk of CVD by ~50% (providing: Decreases no smoking, low animal fat intake, healthy body weight) weight) Decreases the risk of Diabetes. Decreases the risk of macular degeneration May aid the immune system to avoid infections. Why? Why? • Rich source of vitamins and some Rich minerals, however……. minerals, - Diets high in carrots showed a decrease in lung cancer, even among smokers. - 3 Large intervention trials however found no Large protection from large doses of beta-carotene supplements, in fact, they increased the risk. - Obviously, it wasn’t the beta carotene. Obviously, - Most studies have found little or no decrease in Most CVD risk, slight increase in cancer, and increase in all cause mortality. in - So if it’s not the vitamins, what is it? Phytochemicals Phytochemicals Plant Plant foods contain many non-essential but beneficial “phytochemicals”. but - Too much to fit in a supplement. - Too many to study - Too many to identify - Benefit probably from combinations. - No nutritional “magic bullet” Vitamins Vitamins Vitamins are essential; however most do not necessarily Vitamins decrease the risk of disease so long as intakes are adequate. RDI exceeds actual need. RDI Supplements Supplements • • Most people get enough vitamins and minerals, so supplements are unnecessary. Some exceptions may include: - Calcium: among people who do not consume adequate dairy (allergy, intolerance, dislike etc). Children, teenagers and older women have higher needs. - Folic acid (Folate): among females of child baring age. - Iron: among some women, specifically in vegetarians/vegans. Supplements Supplements • • Large “mega doses” are not beneficial. Large Some exceptions may include: - Folic acid, Vitamin B6 & Vitamin B12 in older people (>55) older - Women of childbearing age Women (~500mcg/daily) (~500mcg/daily) - Specific medical conditions (mal-absorption, metabolic disorders) Specific - Can be provided by most multivitamins. Supplements Supplements There are certain problems associated with There unsupervised supplement intake: unsupervised - Can be very expensive - Provide vitamins and minerals but not many phytochemicals. - Don’t satisfy hunger (healthy food also provides nutrients, but Don’t also provide a meal) also - Some may be toxic in large doses (vitamin A, B6, Iron, Selenium) Some - “The dose makes the poison” (“Natural” doesn’t always mean The safe) safe) Back to fruits and veggies…… Fruit and Vegetables Fruit The more variety, the better Try to include lots of different colours. Some of the best fruits include: - Tomatoes, Tomatoes, Berries (particularly blueberries & strawberries) & Grapes Citrus fruits such as lemons, oranges, mandarins, grapefruit etc Red apples (especially their skins) Other orange/red fruits such apricots, mangoes, passion fruit, peaches, plums etc. peaches, - The more variety the better. Vegetables Vegetables Some - of the best vegetables include: Dark green leafy foods like spinach, Allium vegetables (garlic, onion and shallots) Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower & Cruciferous brussel sprouts) brussel - - - Red/Yellow/Orange vegetables such as carrots, capsicum, Red/Yellow/Orange squash etc squash Legumes Legumes Legumes: Legumes: - Foods that grow in a pod such as various beans as Good source of non- animal protein, low GI carbohydrate, fibre, vitamins carbohydrate, and minerals and - Soy foods improve cholesterol levels Soy and may prevent breast and prostate cancer. cancer. Recommendations Recommendations 3 servings of fruit and 5 servings of vegetables servings seems to offer the best protection. seems Most people do not get anywhere near enough. Why? Never acquired a taste for them. Especially Especially important to introduce plant foods to children so that they acquire a taste for them. children What if they don’t like them? Making Fruit and Veggies Appealing Appealing Try to mask the taste. Adding sauces, seasoning, spices. Add among favorite foods Mix them in with likeable foods – don’t keep Mix separate separate Add gradually, start with more acceptable ones Use small pieces Use Add leafy vegetables to sandwiches Add extra vegetables on pizza toppings, in rolls, taco’s taco’s Experiment with new recipes that include some Experiment likeable food likeable Try to sneak a few new fruit/veggie pieces in ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course SOC 131 taught by Professor Kathy during the Spring '06 term at Michigan State University.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online