{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}


GalapagosINTROSpring2011 - To start our investigation we...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: To start our investigation, we need to go where our data are collected…. GALAPAGOS ISLANDS GALAPAGOS ISLANDS Galapagos Research Expedition Galapagos Research Expedition Galapagos Islands Galapagos Islands - islands of volcanic origin - Province of Ecuador, 500 miles west of Ecuador - at the equator Galapagos Islands Galapagos Islands –As equatorial as it gets –“Tropical Islands” What does this mean? What climate do you expect on these islands? Galapagos Islands & Finches Galapagos Islands & Finches –75oF for most of the year •Warmer days •Cooler nights –Rainy season and Dry season –What factors determine the climate? Climate Climate • Tropics (23.5° North and South latitude) – Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn – Sun directly over the area at least once a year (twice in this case) = equinox • Sun’s angle to Earth defines Equinox and • So tropics have: • • • sun farthest away from equator, above a Tropic line) Solstice (Equinox: sun above equator, day&night equal; Solstice: High incident light Regular pattern of light (days & nights almost equal all year) Direct angle of light (more solar radiation per unit area) Climate Climate • What else influences temperature and climate? – Moderating effect of water – Wind – Elevation, topography – Vegetation and ground cover • Seasonality: rainy / dry seasons A unique place with unique A unique place with unique endemic species http://photo.gouldhome.com Galapagos Islands & Finches Galapagos Islands & Finches –Can't be seen from the mainland –Geologically young volcanic –Many endemic species Some of the Animals Some of the Animals The Fauna The Fauna • Birds – Darwin’s Finches, Galapagos Martins, Blue­ footed & Masked Boobies, Owls, Egrets, Gulls, Herons, Pelicans, and Frigatebirds – Marine & Land Iguanas, Sea Turtles, and Lava Lizards – Two species of rice rat, Two species of bat, Galapagos Sea Lion, and Fur Seal • Reptiles • Mammals Galapagos Birds Galapagos Birds Birds Birds Galapagos Islands & Finches Galapagos Islands & Finches • Not strong enough to fly from island to island • • • • Darwin’s Finches Darwin’s Finches Eat seeds and bugs Eaten by owls Natural selection Evolution – However • Owls can fly from islands • Finches can be blown by storms with high winds between islands So what’s the big deal? So what’s the big deal? • One season – Mysteriously, many finches died • No physical signs of being eaten • Always appeared to die in the morning – I need you to find out! – Don’t forget you are working with the Grants and have access to all their data • So what happened? Answer these 2 Questions Answer these 2 Questions • Why did so many finches die in one year? • Why did some finches survive? • Come up with at least 2 hypotheses to explain each question and refute or support your hypotheses with the data the Grants have gathered for you. Let’s just study the finches! Let’s just study the finches! • We’ll start by joining up with Peter and Rosemary Grant in the year 1973 – British scientists from Princeton – Spent 6 months out of every year on Isla Daphne major for 20 years – Caught, banded, and observed at least 25 generations of finches on the island which is an estimated 19,000 birds – Have published mounds of literature regarding evolution and natural selection affecting the Isla Daphne major finch population Finch Project Finch Project • Data collected by Drs. Rosemary and Peter Grant – 1973 – 1978 • 1977 3/4ths of finch population died Medium­ground Finch (Geospiza fortis) Galapagos Islands & Finches Galapagos Islands & Finches –Peter & Rosemary Grant •yearly trips •know life tables •not an easy place to research – You are going to pretend that you are their colleagues Isla Daphne Major, The Island Isla Daphne Major, The Island • Located in the • • • • Galapagos near Santa Cruz Completely volcanic Very few trees Restricted access to very few visitors Tropical climate – About 75o for most of the year • Rainy and dry seasons Galapagos Islands & Finches Galapagos Islands & Finches –Finches aren't strong enough to fly from island to island, but owls are –One season, a bunch of finches died •Always in the morning •No signs of having been eaten – Finches eat seeds and some bugs – Owls are their main predators on Daphne Major Galapagos Islands & Finches Galapagos Islands & Finches References References Pictures •http://alumni.nd.edu/travel/GalapagosIslands.html •http://www.galapagos.org/ •http://www.discovergalapagos.com/ •http://www.rit.edu/~rhrsbi/GalapagosPages/DarwinFinch.html Questions for the Finch Data Questions for the Finch Data 1. Why did the finches die? 1. Why did some finches survive? Come up with hypotheses – at least 2 for each question along with a graph that corresponds to each hypothesis. = 4 hypotheses & 4 graphs MINIMUM What data do you need to test your hypothesis? Questions for the Finch Data Questions for the Finch Data • Are there alternate hypotheses? BRAINSTORM BRAINSTORM Hypotheses for Question 1 • – What killed the finches? • List as many possible answers as you can. HYPOTHESES HYPOTHESES • Are any untestable? • Must be able to evaluate with empirical data. Data Data • Empirical data: – “Information derived from measurements made in "real life" situations “ ( http://www.nechakowhitesturgeon.org/sturgeon/glossary/index.php) – “Verifiable or provable by means of observation or experiment” ( http://www.thefreedictionary.com/empirical) – “observable by the senses” (http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empirical) Hypotheses Hypotheses • Do we have data available for every • • hypothesis? Start the finch program and check. If the data are not available, what would you need? How would you get it to test your hypothesis in the future? Hypotheses Hypotheses • Which hypotheses are reasonable to test • • and have data available? Predict: What will the graph look like if your hypothesis is true? … false? Gather the data and graph. ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}