PSYC507_ShinkarevaFall10

PSYC507_ShinkarevaFall10 - Functional Magnetic Resonance...

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2/25/11 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Dr. Svetlana Shinkareva
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2/25/11 Good spatial and temporal resolution Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) One of the tools used to study cognition Non-invasive technique used to study the living brain; can be repeated many times Indirectly measure local brain activity in response to cognitive tasks fMRI Uses a standard MRI scanner Acquires a series of images Measures changes in blood oxygenation
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2/25/11 33 Modern neuroscience Different tools exist for inferring brain function. Temporal resolution good (millisecond) poor (months) good (neuron) poor (whole  brain) scr erp fmri pet tms nirs lesions eeg Spatial resolution
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2/25/11 Published by AAAS K. J. Friston Science 326, 399-403 (2009) Citation rates for the different modalities of functional neuroimaging
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2/25/11 Published by AAAS K. J. Friston Science 326, 399-403 (2009) Citation rates for the different applications of functional neuroimaging
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2/25/11 Example: Sensory-motor Task activation Motor cortex - BA4 shown in green Visual cortex - BA 17,18,19 BA 17 is shown in red . BA 18 is orange BA 19 is yellow time Task : tap a button while a checkerboard is on the screen. Slide: Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli fMRI
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2/25/11 Motor cortex Visual cortex areas that show more activity during the checkerboard/tap condition than during the fixation screen. Example: Sensorimotor Task activation fMRI
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2/25/11 Detecting Awareness in the Vegetative State Adrian M. Owen,1* Martin R. Coleman,2 Melanie Boly,3 Matthew H. Davis,1 Steven Laureys,3John D. Pickard Vegetative state : patients who emerge from coma appear to be awake but show no signs of awareness Ex: detecting awareness
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2/25/11 Detecting Awareness in the Vegetative Adrian M. Owen,1* Martin R. Coleman,2 Melanie Boly,3 Matthew H. Davis,1 Steven Laureys,3John D. Pickard Vegetative state : patients who emerge from coma appear to be awake but show no signs of awareness Patient: 23-year-old woman with a severe traumatic brain injury as a result of a road traffic accident. Five months later, she remained unresponsive with preserved sleep-wake cycles. Clinical assessment by a multidisciplinary team concluded that she fulfilled all of the criteria for a diagnosis of vegetative state according to international guidelines. Science 8 September 2006: Vol. 313. no. 5792, p. 1402 DOI: 10.1126/science.1130197 Is the woman consciously aware? Ex: detecting awareness
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2/25/11 bilateral middle and superior temporal gyri Science 8 September 2006: Vol. 313. no. 5792, p. 1402 DOI: 10.1126/science.1130197 Ex: detecting awareness
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2/25/11 bilateral middle and superior temporal gyri Thus a patient had an appropriate neural response to the meaning of spoken sentences Science 8 September 2006: Vol. 313. no. 5792, p. 1402 DOI: 10.1126/science.1130197 Is the woman consciously Ex: detecting awareness
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2/25/11 Mental Imagery: changes in brain activity when one imagines performing Ex: detecting awareness
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2/25/11 Detecting Awareness in the Vegetative
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PSYC507_ShinkarevaFall10 - Functional Magnetic Resonance...

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