Chapter 11. Liquids and Solids

Chapter 11. Liquids and Solids - Liquids and Solids State...

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Unformatted text preview: Liquids and Solids State Volume Shape of Sample Density Compressibility gas assumes shape and volume of container low easily compressed liquid definite volume, assumes shape of container high nearly incompressible solid both definite shape and volume high nearly incompressible Physical State Relation between Energy of Attraction and Kinetic Energy of Molecules Solid Kinetic Energy << Energy of Attraction Liquid Kinetic Energy ~ Energy of Attraction Gas Kinetic Energy >> Energy of Attraction As temperature increases, the vapor pressure of a liquid increases. The stronger the intermolecular forces, the lower is the vapor pressure of the liquid at any temperature. (a) diethyl ether (c) water (b) ehtanol (d) mercury In a chemical equation a double arrow is used to indicate an equilibrium reaction. (C 2 H 5 ) 2 O(l) ---> (C 2 H 5 ) 2 O(g) As the strength of intermolecular forces increase vapor pressure of the liquid decreases boiling point increases enthalpy of vaporization increases critical temperature increases The changes of a substance from liquid to solid (freezing) and from solid to liquid (melting or fusion) are also opposing changes that lead to a dynamic equilibrium. H 2 O(s) <---> H 2 O( l ) F E D A B C-50 50 100 150 200-10 10 20 30 40 50 60 Heat Temperature When only one phase is present (A to B, C to D, E to F), then q = m C s T F E D A B C-50 50 100 150 200-10 10 20 30 40 50 60 Heat Temperature During phase transitions (B to C and D to E) the temperature remains constant and q = H of the transition....
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Chapter 11. Liquids and Solids - Liquids and Solids State...

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