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Chapter 5

# Chapter 5 - Different States of Matter Chapter 5 Gases...

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Chapter 5 Gases Dr. Manuel P. Soriaga Department of Chemistry Different States of Matter Solid Melting Freezing Sublimation Deposition Gas Liquid Vaporization Condensation Fundamental Gas Variables Pressure (P) Temperature (T) Volume (V) Number of moles (n) How these variables relate to one another: Gas Laws Atmospheric Pressure Pressure: force (F) per unit area (A). The force in atmospheric pressure is due to the weight of air molecules above the earth’s surface. Pressure Due to Confined Gas Pressure is the result of molecular collisions between gas molecules and container walls. Each collision imparts a small amount of force. Sum of vast number of gas molecular collisions yields the macroscopic value of the pressure. A Mercury Barometer h (m) P (N/m 2 ) = g (m/s 2 ) = d (kg/m 3 ) P (kg m/s 2 /m 2 ) Average sea-level pressure atmospheric pressure 1 atm 760 mm Hg at 0 o C 760 torr 101.325 kPa

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Boyle’s Law P 1 V 1 = constant = P 2 V 2 At constant T and n: Boyle’s Law Boyle’s Law: A Molecular View Larger V: Fewer collisions per unit time: Lower P Smaller V: More collisions per unit time: Higher P Charles’ Law T 1 /V 1 = constant = T 2 /V 2 At constant P and n: Extrapolation to V = 0: temperature = -273°C T: Absolute temperature = t (°C) + 273
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Chapter 5 - Different States of Matter Chapter 5 Gases...

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