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Chapter 2 - Atomic Structure of Matter Chapter 2 Atoms and...

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Chapter 2 Atoms and Molecules Dr. Manuel P. Soriaga Department of Chemistry Texas A&M University Atomic Structure of Matter Simplest model: tiny nucleus (10 –13 cm diameter) surrounded by electrons (about 10 –5 cm away) Nucleus contains protons and neutrons An Image of Iodine Atoms Soriaga Research Laboratories Texas A&M University Constituents of the Atom Electrons, protons and neutrons Particle Mass ( Da ) Charge Electron (e ) 0.000548 1– Proton (p or p + ) 1.0073 1+ Neutron (n or n 0 ) 1.0087 0 1 Dalton (Da) = 1 Atomic Mass Unit (amu) 1 (Da) 1 / 12 of the mass of C-12 atom = 1.66 × 10 -24 g Neutral atom contains an equal number of protons and electrons A non-neutral is called an ion Isotopes Same number of protons but different number of neutrons Identical chemical properties E.g., Hydrogen has three isotopes: H 1 1 Hydrogen: 1 neutrons D 1 2 Deuterium: 2 neutrons T 1 3 Tritium: 3 neutrons Atomic Notation: Nuclide Symbol X A Z 11 protons 11 electrons 12 neutrons Mass of 23 Da The atom with the symbol has: 11 23 Na E = Atomic symbol A = Mass number = p + + n 0 Z = Atomic number = p +
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Ag Silver Al Aluminum Au Gold B Boron Br Bromine C Carbon Ca Calcium Cl Chlorine Chemical Symbols Cu Copper Fe Iron H
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