chapt02_lecture - Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 2nd ed....

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Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 2 nd ed. Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Biology
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Why is it important to study Chemistry in a Microbiology class?
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Structure and function of all matter in the universe are based on atoms All activities in the cell are chemical reactions in a grand scale
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2.1 Atoms, Bonds, and Molecules: Fundamental Building Blocks Matter : anything that occupies space and has mass- give examples Can be liquid, solid, or gaseous state Building blocks of matter- atoms Subatomic particles of atoms- protons (p + ), neutrons (n 0 ), and electrons (e - ) Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus, electrons surround the nucleus Held together by the attraction of positive protons to negative electrons
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Figure 2.1
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Properties of subatomic particles An atom derives its properties from the subatomic particles: Protons- positively charged Electrons- Negatively charged ( make of most of the volume) Neutrons- No charge Proton+ Neutron – Nucleus ( makes up most of the mass) Stability of atomic structure: Attraction between protons and electrons Number of Protons= Number of Electrons Draw atomic structure of C-6, N-7, O-8
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Different Types of Atoms: Elements and Their Properties Different numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons in atoms create different elements Each element has a characteristic atomic structure and predictable chemical behavior Each assigned a distinctive name with an abbreviated shorthand symbol
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Living things are made of ~ 25 different elements
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The Major Elements of Life and Their Primary Characteristics Isotopes - variant forms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons Same chemical properties Some are unstable and release energy as radiation Radioactive isotopes used in research and medical applications and in dating fossils and sterilization materials
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Electron Orbitals and Shells An atom can be envisioned as a central nucleus surrounded by a “cloud” of electrons Electrons rotate about the nucleus in pathways called orbitals - volumes of space in which an electron is likely to be found Electrons occupy energy shells, from lower-energy to higher-energy as they move away from the nucleus Electrons fill the orbitals and shells in pairs starting with the shell nearest the nucleus Chemical properties of an element is decided by the distribution of electrons in its outermost shells - Valence electrons
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Figure 2.2
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Check point Structure of an atom How do elements differ from one another? What are isotopes? What determines the chemical properties of an element?
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Bonds and Molecules Most elements do not exist naturally in pure form Molecule - a distinct chemical substance that results from the combination of two or more atoms (can be two of the same element, such as O 2 ) Compounds - molecules that are combinations of two or more different elements (such as CO 2 ) Chemical Bonds - When two or more atoms come together they share, donate, or accept electrons Types of bonds formed are determined by the atom’s valence
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course BIO 211 taught by Professor Arikkath during the Spring '11 term at Essex County College.

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chapt02_lecture - Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 2nd ed....

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