chapt05_lecture - Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 2nd ed....

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Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 2 nd ed. Chapter 5: Eukaryotic Cells and Microorganisms
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Checkpoint What are the basic characteristics of a prokaryotic cell? Which are the major, external structures, Cell envelope and internal structures?
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5.1 The History of Eukaryotes Evidence points to these eukaryotic cells evolving from prokaryotic organisms through intracellular symbiosis Eukaryotic organelles originated from prokaryotic cells trapped inside of them Eventually formed colonies Cells within colonies became specialized Evolved in to multicellular organisms Eukaryotes have many levels of cellular complexity
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5.2 Form and Function of the Eukaryotic Cell: External Structures Figure 5.2
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Locomotor Appendages: Cilia and Flagella Eukaryotic flagella are much different from those of prokaryotes 10X thicker Structurally more complex Covered by an extension of the cell membrane A single flagellum contains regularly spaced microtubules along its length 9 pairs surrounding a single pair The 9 + 2 arrangement
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Figure 5.3
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Cilia- similar to flagella but some differences Shorter More numerous Can also function as feeding and filtering structures
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The Glycocalyx Usually composed of polysaccharides Appears as a network of fibers, a slime layer, or a capsule Functions Protection Adhesion Reception of signals from other cells and enviornment The layer beneath the glycocalyx varies among eukaryotes Fungi and most algae have a thick, rigid cell wall Protozoa and animal cells do not have this cell wall
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Form and Function of the Eukaryotic Cell: Boundary Structures Cell Wall Rigid Provide support and shape Different chemically from prokaryotic cell walls Fungi Thick, inner layer of chitin or cellulose Thin outer layer of mixed glycans Algae Varied in chemical composition May contain cellulose, pectin, mannans, and minerals
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Figure 5.5
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Cytoplasmic Membrane Bilayer of phospholipids with protein molecules embedded Also contain sterols Gives stability Especially important in cells without a cell wall Selectively permeable
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Compare the external structures of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
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5.3 Form and Function of the Eukaryotic Cell: Internal Structures The Nucleus: The Control Center Separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope Two parallel membranes separated by a narrow space Perforated with nuclear pores Filled with nucleoplasm Contains the nucleolus rRNA synthesis Collection area for ribosomal subunits Chromatin Comprises the chromosomes Long, linear DNA molecules Bound to histone proteins Visible during mitosis
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Figure 5.6
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chapt05_lecture - Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 2nd ed....

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