chapt07_lecture - Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 2nd ed....

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Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 2 nd ed. Chapter 7: Microbial Nutrition, Ecology, and Growth
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7.1 Microbial Nutrition Nutrition : a process by which chemical substances ( nutrients ) are acquired from the environment and used in cellular activities All living things require a source of elements such as C, H, O, P, K, N, S, Ca, Fe, Na, Cl, Mg- but the relative amounts vary depending on the microbe Nutrients are processed and transformed into the chemicals of the cell after absorption
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Essential Nutrient : any substances that must be provided to an organism Macronutrients : Required in relatively large quantities, play principal roles in cell structure and metabolism (ex. C, H, O) Micronutrients : aka trace elements, present in smaller amounts and involved in enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure (ex. Mn, Zn, Ni) Can also categorize nutrients according to C content Inorganic nutrients : A combination of atoms other than C and H Organic nutrients : Contain C and H, usually the products of living things
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Chemical Analysis of Microbial Cytoplasm
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Sources of Essential Nutrients Carbon sources Nitrogen sources Oxygen sources Hydrogen sources Phosphorus sources Sulfur sources Others
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Carbon Sources The majority of C compounds involved in normal structure and metabolism of all cells are organic Heterotroph : Must obtain C in organic form (nutritionally dependent on other living things) Autotroph : Uses inorganic CO 2 as its carbon source (not nutritionally dependent on other living things)
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Nitrogen Sources • Main reservoir- N 2 Primary nitrogen source for heterotrophs- proteins, DNA, RNA Some bacteria and algae utilize inorganic nitrogenous nutrients • Small number can transform N 2 into usable compounds through nitrogen fixation Regardless of the initial form, must be converted to NH 3 (the only form that can be directly combined with C to synthesize amino acids and other compounds)
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Oxygen Sources O is a major component of organic compounds Also a common component of inorganic salts O 2 makes up 20% of the atmosphere
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Hydrogen Sources H is a major element in all organic and several inorganic compounds Performs overlapping roles in the biochemistry of cells: Maintaining pH Forming hydrogen bonds between molecules Serving as the source of free energy in oxidation-reduction reactions of respiration
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Phosphorus (Phosphate) Sources Main inorganic source of phosphorus is phosphate (PO 4 3- ) Key component in nucleic acids Also found in ATP Phospholipids in cell membranes and coenzymes
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Sulfur Sources Widely distributed throughout the environment in mineral form Essential component of some vitamins Amino acids- methionine and cysteine
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Other Nutrients Important in microbial Metabolism Potassium- protein synthesis and membrane function Sodium- certain types of cell transport Calcium- stabilizer of cell walls and endospores
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course BIO 211 taught by Professor Arikkath during the Spring '11 term at Essex County College.

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chapt07_lecture - Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 2nd ed....

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