History 2B Notes

History 2B Notes - History 2B Notes Islam 2. pre-islamic...

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History 2B Notes Islam 2. pre-islamic religion was animistic which were mostly tribal and clan gods. Then they switched to mecca a meteriotic stone. Mohammad arrives in the scene and says that allah as the all true god. Growing disparity between rich and poor which leds to selfish and self centered people and tribal solitarity was endangered. Mohammad rejects polytheism only 1 good which is Allah. Challenges mecca's oligarchy and in 622 migrates to medina. Set up the first ummah (islamic community). There were five pillars of islam which contains key rules such as only one god allah, mohammad is his prophet. You must pray 5 times a day facing toward mecca. Give alms, fasting Rammadan and pilgrimage to mecca the haj. Had qur'an, judgement day, and Jihad (dying in jihad assures heavenly reward). All practices must conform to the Qur'an. Toleration for Dhimmis “peoples of the book” There was no priesthood, islam does not, but they had Imam – leads community in prayer. No priest a lot different from other religions. Women have rights to inherit, own, and manage property. No full equality which they were mostly in seclusion. Caliph turns out to be the succeser which the belief was that only a muslim free from all sin was fit to lead. Total equality of the faithful. People that are alliance with ali are the shi'ites. Insist that the true Caliph must carry Mohammed's blood line. Revolts against Mu'awiya ummayyad. Sunnis- another majority are sunnis who are followers of the tradition (sunna) of the prophet and Qur'an, accept Ummayyad Caliphs. Expansion of Islam (632-661) - defeat Byzantine Empire take egypt, palestine and syria - Conquest Sassanid Empire - Helped by religious divisons with these empires , Byzantine persecute monophysites, Sasannid Empire Mu'awiya Umayyad - elected Caliph and moves the capital to Damascus - under the Umayyad there was a tremendous amount of expansion. Reached the Maghrib in the west. Then they moved into Spain in 711. Then they finally stopped into France. (Charles Martel c.688 and battle Poitiers) High Caliphate - Abu al-Abbas (721-754) established capital at Baghdad Cultural Golden Age (harun al-rashid 786-809) Caliphate weakened in 10 th Century, Abbasid Caliph left in place and Buyid Family (held the real power Vizier). Fragmentation egypt – the fatimid Dynasty Spain – abd al Rahman 3 Saljug Turks battle of Manzanthium Origins of Islamic Spain Visigothic Kingdom King Rodrigo and Qitiza clan refused to accept Rodrigo Muslim Invasion – led by Tariq of Tangier, Crossed straits of Gilbraaltar, defeat Rodrigo's army Convivencia – christians, muslims and Jews peacefully coeist Jews – ruled by their own law and officials, Trusted royal officials. Christians (mozarabic) christian effort to recover Spain – helped by divison of Caliphate in
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History 2B Notes - History 2B Notes Islam 2. pre-islamic...

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