Handout_Erichsen_Propulsion

Handout_Erichsen_Propulsion - - 1- Chapter 1: Introduction...

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- 1- S.1 Spacecraft Propulsion Systems Spacecraft propulsion is based on jet propulsion as used by rocket motors. The principle of rocket propulsion was known as far back as 360B.C. In the 13 th century solid rocket- powered arrows were used by the Chinese military. The Second World War and the cold war advanced rocket missile development in modern time. Later, space opened up to exploration and commercial exploitation by satellites and robot spacecraft. This lecture will introduce the basic aspects of rocket propulsion, with focus on analysis and performance of spacecraft propulsion systems. Key features and performance characteristics of existing and planned (near future) propulsion systems for use on spacecraft are summarized. Chapter 1 : Introduction to Spacecraft Propulsion Peter Erichsen, September 2006
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- 2- S.2 Educational Objectives In this chapter you will learn about: Different applications of propulsion Typical space propulsion tasks The main characteristics of spacecraft propulsion What kind of propulsion systems exist
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- 3- S.3 Need of Propulsion Propulsion is needed to: Place payloads into orbit: launch propulsion is used; Send payloads to the moon or to the planets: space propulsion is used; Position, adjust and maintain orbits of spacecrafts by orbit control : auxiliary propulsion is used; Orient spacecraft by attitude control : auxiliary propulsion also called reaction-control systems is used.
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- 4- Payloads The Payload is the revenue-producing portion of a spacecraft load, e.g., passengers and cargo such as scientific experiments, TV transmitters, earth observation equipment like photo cameras, etc. Spacecrafts Spacecraft is the collective name of devices, which are designed to be placed into space, comprising earth satellites, interplanetary and trans-solar types of space probes. Spacecraft can be manned or unmanned .
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- 5- Orbit control ORBIT CONTROL comprises: Orbit changes: - Moving a spacecraft to a desired orbit, including plane changes, orbit injection, de- orbit, etc.
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- 6- Orbit Maintenance or “Station Keeping”: - Keeping a spacecraft in the desired mission orbit, i.e. compensating for effects of disturbing forces like drag, solar wind, gravitational forces, etc. Attitude control Changing the attitude, that is changing the orientation of a spacecraft to the desired direction. Keeping a spacecraft to the desired direction by compensating for disturbing torques.
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- 7- S.4 Reaction-Control System There are the following types of reaction control systems: Reaction Jets (propulsion): which produce a control force by the expenditure of mass; Solar Sails, Magnetic Torquers (magnetic coils): which produce a control force by interaction with the environmental field; Momentum-Transfer Devices (reaction-, flywheels): which produce no net control force, but simply transfer angular momentum to or from the spacecraft.
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Handout_Erichsen_Propulsion - - 1- Chapter 1: Introduction...

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