CausalFactors1

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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style 2/25/11 1.26.11 Causal Factors and Viewpoints 11 2/25/11 Research Approaches in Abnormal Psychology Sources of Information: Case Study: an in-depth examination of an individual or family that draws from a number of data sources  Not generalizable, few conclusions can be drawn  Often good for generating hypotheses  Can be subject to bias Direct Observation  Often used with children  Many biological variables (cortisol, heart rate) Self-report data: collected directly from participants  Typically interviews or questionnaires  Information may not be always accurate or truthful 22 2/25/11 Research Approaches in Abnormal Psychology Hypotheses » efforts to explain, predict, or explore something Sampling: the process of selecting a representative subgroup from a defined population of interest The more representative, the more we can generalize our findings! Comparison/Control Group : typically psychologically “normal” but otherwise similar to the criterion group Criterion Group: typically people who have the disorder being studied 33 2/25/11 Research Approaches in Abnormal Psychology Independent Variable: The variable that is manipulated Dependent Variable: The outcome of interest External Validity : The extent to which we can generalize our finding beyond the study itself Internal Validity (LMCV): How confident we are in the results of a particular study Extent to which the study is:  Methodologically sound  Free of confounds or other sources of error  Able to be used to draw valid conclusions 44 2/25/11 Observational Research Designs Observation/Correlational Research – does not involve any variable manipulation Often what we are doing when we use criterion and control groups! We are often looking for associations, or correlations, between variables However… correlation does NOT mean causation Correlation: The tendency for two variables to change together Implies a relationship between two variables Measured by correlation coefficient ( r ) Range from -1.0 to +1.0 The larger the absolute value of r, the stronger the correlation 55 2/25/11 Correlations 66 2/25/11 Observational vs. Experimental Research Designs Observational Experimental Population Sample Sample Population Assessm ent Assessm ent Compare responses Population Sample Baseline Assessm ent Assessment Assessment Tx Control Compare responses Random 77 2/25/11 Single case designs: Multiple observations of one subject ABAB Design Experimental Research Designs 88 2/25/11 Maddux (2005)...
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2011 for the course PYSC 410 taught by Professor Bessellieu during the Spring '09 term at South Carolina.

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