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CausalFactors1 - 11 1.26.11 CaseStudy: Notgeneralizable,

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Click to edit Master subtitle style  2/25/11 1.26.11 Causal Factors and Viewpoints 11
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 2/25/11 Research Approaches  in Abnormal Psychology Sources of Information: Case Study:  an in-depth examination of an individual or  family that draws from a number of data sources Not generalizable, few conclusions can be drawn Often good for generating hypotheses Can be subject to bias Direct Observation Often used with children Many biological variables (cortisol, heart rate) Self-report data:  collected directly from participants  Typically interviews or questionnaires Information may not be always accurate or truthful 22
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 2/25/11 Research Approaches in Abnormal Psychology Hypotheses » efforts to explain, predict, or explore  something Sampling: the process of selecting a representative  subgroup from a defined population of interest The more representative, the more we can generalize our findings! Comparison/Control Group : typically psychologically  “normal” but otherwise similar to the criterion group Criterion Group:  typically people who have the disorder  being studied 33
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 2/25/11 Research Approaches in Abnormal Psychology Independent Variable: The variable that is manipulated Dependent Variable: The outcome of interest External Validity The extent to which we can generalize our finding beyond the study  itself Internal Validity  (LMCV): How confident we are in the results of a particular study Extent to which the study is: Methodologically sound Free of confounds or other sources of error Able to be used to draw valid conclusions 44
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 2/25/11 Observational Research Designs Observation/Correlational Research – does not involve  any variable manipulation Often what we are doing when we use criterion and control  groups! We are often looking for associations, or correlations, between  variables However… correlation does NOT mean causation Correlation: The tendency for two variables to change  together Implies a relationship between two variables Measured by correlation coefficient ( r ) Range from -1.0 to +1.0 The larger the absolute value of r, the stronger the correlation 55
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 2/25/11 Correlations 66
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 2/25/11 Observational vs. Experimental Research Designs Observational Experimental Population Sample Sample Population Assessm ent Assessm ent Compare  responses Population Sample Baseline  Assessm ent Assessment Assessment Tx Control Compare  responses Random  Assignment 77
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 2/25/11 Single case designs: Multiple observations of one  subject ABAB Design Experimental Research Designs 88
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 2/25/11 Maddux (2005) Deconstruction of the Illness Ideology Faulty Assumptions about the DSM-IV 1.
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