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Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6th Edition

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6th Edition -...

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Mechanics PART 1 ± Liftoff of the space shuttle Columbia. The tragic accident of February 1, 2003 that took the lives of all seven astronauts aboard happened just before Volume 1 of this book went to press. The launch and operation of a space shuttle involves many fundamental principles of classical mechanics, thermodynamics, and electromagnetism. We study the principles of classical mechanics in Part 1 of this text, and apply these principles to rocket propulsion in Chapter 9. (NASA) 1 hysics, the most fundamental physical science, is concerned with the basic principles of the Universe. It is the foundation upon which the other sciences— astronomy, biology, chemistry, and geology—are based. The beauty of physics lies in the simplicity of the fundamental physical theories and in the manner in which just a small number of fundamental concepts, equations, and assumptions can alter and expand our view of the world around us. The study of physics can be divided into six main areas: which is concerned with the motion of objects that are large relative to atoms and move at speeds much slower than the speed of light; which is a theory describing objects moving at any speed, even speeds approaching the speed of light; which deals with heat, work, temperature, and the statistical be- havior of systems with large numbers of particles; which is concerned with electricity, magnetism, and electro- which is the study of the behavior of light and its interaction with materials; a collection of theories connecting the behavior of matter at the submicroscopic level to macroscopic observations. The disciplines of mechanics and electromagnetism are basic to all other branches of classical physics (developed before 1900) and modern physics (c. 1900–present). The first part of this textbook deals with classical mechanics, Newtonian mechanics or simply mechanics. This is an ap- propriate place to begin an introductory text because many of the basic principles used to understand mechanical systems can later be used to describe such natural phenomena as waves and the transfer of energy by heat. Furthermore, the laws of conservation of energy and momentum introduced in mechanics retain their impor- tance in the fundamental theories of other areas of physics. Today, classical mechanics is of vital importance to students from all disciplines. It is highly successful in describing the motions of different objects, such as planets, rockets, and baseballs. In the first part of the text, we shall describe the laws of clas- sical mechanics and examine a wide range of phenomena that can be understood P
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Chapter 1 Physics and Measurement CHAPTER OUTLINE 1.1 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time 1.2 Matter and Model Building 1.3 Density and Atomic Mass 1.4 Dimensional Analysis 1.5 Conversion of Units 1.6 Estimates and Order-of- Magnitude Calculations 1.7 Significant Figures 2 ± The workings of a mechanical clock. Complicated timepieces have been built for cen- turies in an effort to measure time accurately. Time is one of the basic quantities that we use in studying the motion of objects. (elektraVision/Index Stock Imagery)
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