19 - Temperature - Thermodynamics e now direct our...

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Thermodynamics e now direct our attention to the study of thermodynamics, which involves situations in which the temperature or state (solid, liquid, gas) of a system changes due to energy transfers. As we shall see, thermodynamics is very successful in explaining the bulk properties of matter and the correlation between Historically, the development of thermodynamics paralleled the development of the atomic theory of matter. By the 1820s, chemical experiments had provided solid evidence for the existence of atoms. At that time, scientists recognized that a con- nection between thermodynamics and the structure of matter must exist. In 1827, the botanist Robert Brown reported that grains of pollen suspended in a liquid move er- ratically from one place to another, as if under constant agitation. In 1905, Albert Einstein used kinetic theory to explain the cause of this erratic motion, which today is . Einstein explained this phenomenon by assuming that the grains are under constant bombardment by “invisible” molecules in the liquid, which themselves move erratically. This explanation gave scientists insight into the concept of molecular motion and gave credence to the idea that matter is made up of atoms. A connection was thus forged between the everyday world and the tiny, in- Thermodynamics also addresses more practical questions. Have you ever won- dered how a refrigerator is able to cool its contents, what types of transformations occur in a power plant or in the engine of your automobile, or what happens to the ki- netic energy of a moving object when the object comes to rest? The laws of thermo- W PART 3 ± The Alyeska oil pipeline near the Tazlina River in Alaska. The oil in the pipeline is warm, and energy transferring from the pipeline could melt environmentally sensitive permafrost in the ground. The finned structures on top of the support posts are thermal radiators that allow the energy to be transferred into the air in order to protect the permafrost. (Topham Picturepoint/The Image Works) 579
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Chapter 19 Temperature CHAPTER OUTLINE 19.1 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 19.2 Thermometers and the Celsius Temperature Scale 19.3 The Constant-Volume Gas Thermometer and the Absolute Temperature Scale 19.4 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 19.5 Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas 580 ± Why would someone designing a pipeline include these strange loops? Pipelines carrying liquids often contain loops such as these to allow for expansion and contraction as the temperature changes. We will study thermal expansion in this chapter. (Lowell Georgia/CORBIS)
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581 I n our study of mechanics, we carefully defined such concepts as mass , force , and kinetic energy to facilitate our quantitative approach. Likewise, a quantitative description of thermal phenomena requires careful definitions of such important terms as temperature , heat , and internal energy . This chapter begins with a discussion of temperature and with a description of one of the laws of thermodynamics (the so-called “zeroth law”).
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19 - Temperature - Thermodynamics e now direct our...

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