33 - Alternating Current Circuits

# 33 - Alternating Current Circuits - Chapter 33 Alternating...

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1033 Alternating Current Circuits CHAPTE R OUTLI N E 33.1 AC Sources 33.2 Resistors in an AC Circuit 33.3 Inductors in an AC Circuit 33.4 Capacitors in an AC Circuit 33.5 The RLC Series Circuit 33.6 Power in an AC Circuit 33.7 Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit 33.8 The Transformer and Power Transmission 33.9 Rectifiers and Filters These large transformers are used to increase the voltage at a power plant for distribution of energy by electrical transmission to the power grid. Voltages can be changed relatively easily because power is distributed by alternating current rather than direct current. (Lester Lefkowitz/Getty Images) Chapter 33

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1034 I n this chapter we describe alternating current (AC) circuits. Every time we turn on a television set, a stereo, or any of a multitude of other electrical appliances in a home, we are calling on alternating currents to provide the power to operate them. We begin our study by investigating the characteristics of simple series circuits that contain resistors, inductors, and capacitors and that are driven by a sinusoidal voltage. We shall find that the maximum alternating current in each element is proportional to the maximum alternating voltage across the element. In addition, when the applied voltage is sinusoidal, the current in each element is also sinusoidal, but not necessarily in phase with the applied voltage. The primary aim of this chapter can be summarized as follows: if an AC source applies an alternating voltage to a series circuit containing resistors, inductors, and capacitors, we want to know the amplitude and time character- istics of the alternating current. We conclude the chapter with two sections concerning transformers, power transmission, and electrical filters. 33.1 AC Sources An AC circuit consists of circuit elements and a power source that provides an alternat- ing voltage v . This time-varying voltage is described by v V max sin t where V max is the maximum output voltage of the AC source, or the voltage amplitude. There are various possibilities for AC sources, including generators, as discussed in Section 31.5, and electrical oscillators. In a home, each electrical outlet serves as an AC source. From Equation 15.12, the angular frequency of the AC voltage is where f is the frequency of the source and T is the period. The source determines the frequency of the current in any circuit connected to it. Because the output voltage of an AC source varies sinusoidally with time, the voltage is positive during one half of the cycle and negative during the other half, as in Figure 33.1. Likewise, the current in any circuit driven by an AC source is an alternating current that also varies sinusoidally with time. Commercial electric-power plants in the United States use a frequency of 60 Hz, which corresponds to an angular frequency of 377 rad/s.
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