39 - Relativity - Modern Physics t the end of the...

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Modern Physics t the end of the nineteenth century, many scientists believed that they had learned most of what there was to know about physics. Newton’s laws of motion his theory of universal gravitation, Maxwell’s theoretical work in unifying electricity and magnetism, the laws of thermodynamics and kinetic theory, and the principles of optics were highly successful in explaining a variety of phenomena. As the nineteenth century turned to the twentieth, however, a major revolution shook the world of physics. In 1900 Planck provided the basic ideas that led to the formulation of the quantum theory, and in 1905 Einstein formulated his brilliant special theory of relativity. The excitement of the times is captured in Einstein’s own words: “It was a marvelous time to be alive.” Both ideas were to have a profound effect on our understanding of nature. Within a few decades, these two theories inspired new developments and theories in the fields of atomic physics, nuclear In Chapter 39 we introduce the special theory of relativity. The theory provides us with a new and deeper view of physical laws. Although the concepts underlying this theory often violate our common sense, the theory correctly predicts the results of experiments involving speeds near the speed of light. In the extended version of this Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, we cover the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and their application to atomic and molecular physics, and we introduce solid-state physics, nuclear physics, particle physics, and You should keep in mind that, although the physics that was developed during the twentieth century has led to a multitude of important technological achievements, the story is still incomplete. Discoveries will continue to evolve during our lifetimes, and many of these discoveries will deepen or refine our understanding of nature and A PART 6 ± A portion of the accelerator tunnel at Fermilab, near Chicago, Illinois. The tunnel is circular and 1.9 km in diameter. Using electric and magnetic fields, protons and antiprotons are accelerated to speeds close to that of light and then allowed to collide head-on, in order to investigate the production of new particles. (Fermilab Photo) 1243
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Chapter 39 Relativity CHAPTER OUTLINE 39.1 The Principle of Galilean Relativity 39.2 The Michelson–Morley Experiment 39.3 Einstein’s Principle of Relativity 39.4 Consequences of the Special Theory of Relativity 39.5 The Lorentz Transformation Equations 39.6 The Lorentz Velocity Transformation Equations 39.7 Relativistic Linear Momentum and the Relativistic Form of Newton’s Laws 39.8 Relativistic Energy 39.9 Mass and Energy 39.10 The General Theory of Relativity 1244 ± Standing on the shoulders of a giant. David Serway, son of one of the authors, watches over his children, Nathan and Kaitlyn, as they frolic in the arms of Albert Einstein at the Einstein memorial in Washington, D.C. It is well known that Einstein, the principal architect of relativity, was very fond of children. (Emily Serway)
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1245 O
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2011 for the course PHYS 102 taught by Professor Wang during the Spring '11 term at Nanjing University.

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39 - Relativity - Modern Physics t the end of the...

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