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Appendix E Noble Prizes - Appendix E Nobel Prizes All Nobel...

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All Nobel Prizes in physics are listed (and marked with a P), as well as relevant Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (C). The key dates for some of the scientific work are supplied; they often antedate the prize considerably. 1901 (P) Wilhelm Roentgen for discovering x-rays (1895). 1902 (P) Hendrik A. Lorentz for predicting the Zeeman effect and Pieter Zeeman for discovering the Zeeman effect, the splitting of spectral lines in magnetic fields. 1903 (P) Antoine-Henri Becquerel for discovering radioactivity (1896) and Pierre and Marie Curie for studying radioactivity. 1904 (P) Lord Rayleigh for studying the density of gases and discovering argon. (C) William Ramsay for discovering the inert gas elements helium, neon, xenon, and krypton, and placing them in the periodic table. 1905 (P) Philipp Lenard for studying cathode rays, electrons (1898–1899). 1906 (P) J. J. Thomson for studying electrical discharge through gases and discover- ing the electron (1897). 1907 (P) Albert A. Michelson for inventing optical instruments and measuring the speed of light (1880s). 1908 (P) Gabriel Lippmann for making the first color photographic plate, using inter- ference methods (1891). (C) Ernest Rutherford for discovering that atoms can be broken apart by alpha rays and for studying radioactivity. 1909 (P) Guglielmo Marconi and Carl Ferdinand Braun for developing wireless telegraphy. 1910 (P) Johannes D. van der Waals for studying the equation of state for gases and liquids (1881). 1911 (P) Wilhelm Wien for discovering Wien’s law giving the peak of a blackbody spectrum (1893). (C) Marie Curie for discovering radium and polonium (1898) and isolating radium. 1912 (P) Nils Dalén for inventing automatic gas regulators for lighthouses. 1913 (P) Heike Kamerlingh Onnes for the discovery of superconductivity and liquefy- ing helium (1908). 1914 (P) Max T. F. von Laue for studying x-rays from their diffraction by crystals, showing that x-rays are electromagnetic waves (1912). (C) Theodore W. Richards for determining the atomic weights of sixty elements, indicating the existence of isotopes. 1915 (P) William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg , his son, for studying the diffraction of x-rays in crystals. 1917 (P) Charles Barkla for studying atoms by x-ray scattering (1906). 1918 (P) Max Planck for discovering energy quanta (1900). 1919 (P) Johannes Stark , for discovering the Stark effect, the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields (1913). 1920 (P) Charles-Édouard Guillaume for discovering invar, a nickel–steel alloy with low coefficient of expansion. (C) Walther Nernst for studying heat changes in chemical reactions and formu- lating the third law of thermodynamics (1918). 1921 (P) Albert Einstein for explaining the photoelectric effect and for his services to theoretical physics (1905). (C) Frederick Soddy for studying the chemistry of radioactive substances and discovering isotopes (1912). Appendix E Nobel Prizes A.33
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A.34 Appendix E Nobel Prizes 1922 (P) Niels Bohr for his model of the atom and its radiation (1913).
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