Phylogenetics - i How do we use character measures(and...

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Bio201 Phylogenetics Vocabulary: node, branch, most recent common ancestor, homology, analogy, convergent evolution, shared characters, derived characters, ancestral characters, monophyletic group, paraphyletic group, synapomorphy I. How many times did HIV evolve? a. In the following tree, can you point out: i. a monophyletic group ii. a node iii. a branch iv. the most recent common ancestor of the 4 HIV lineages b. What is the ancestral character state for the monophyletic group containing the 4 HIV lineages? c. What is the derived character state for this group? II. Why are birds and mammals both endothermic? a. Hypothesis 1: Because they both inherited endothermy from their most recent common ancestor. b. Hypothesis 2: Because they live in similar environments that both selected for enodthermy (analogy). c. How can we use phylogeny to distinguish between these two hypotheses?
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Unformatted text preview: i. How do we use character measures (and parsimony) to build a phylogenetic tree? ii. Which of the above hypotheses is correct? iii. How does this example distinguish between homology and analogy? Which character(s) are homologous between birds and mammals? Which character(s) are analogous? III. Constructing and Interpreting Trees a. Know how to use parsimony to choose between alternative tree topologies. b. Know how to infer ancestral relationships between taxa on the tree. i. Did the dentist infect his patients with HIV? ii. Was the immediate ancestor of the 1918 flu more closely related to a bird, swine, or human flu? Do all the flu genes appear to have the same immediate ancestor? IV. The Comparative Method a. How do we use the comparative method to test adaptive hypotheses within the context of a phylogenetic tree?...
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Phylogenetics - i How do we use character measures(and...

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