Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 ‐ Part 1: Ethical and Social Issues in Informa;on Systems Learning Objec;ves • Iden;fy the ethical, social, and poli;cal issues that are raised by informa;on systems • Iden;fy key principles for conduct that can be used to guide ethical decisions • Evaluate the impact of contemporary informa;on systems and the Internet on the protec;on of individual privacy and intellectual property • Assess how informa;on systems have aﬀected everyday life Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 1 Understanding Ethical and Social Issues Related to Systems • Past ﬁve years: One of the most ethically challenged periods in U.S. history – Lapses by management in ethical and business judgment across a broad spectrum of industries: Enron, WorldCom – Sub‐prime mortgage crisis and the failure of risk analysis: Ci;bank, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, AIG, etc. – Informa;on systems instrumental in these events, as well as in many recent frauds • BoQom line: Individual managers must take greater responsibility regarding ethical and legal conduct, and must understand the role of IS in this context Understanding Ethical and Social Issues Related to Systems • Ethics – Principles of right and wrong that individuals use to make choices that guide their behavior • Informa;on systems and ethics – Informa;on systems raise new ethical ques;ons because they create opportuni;es for: • Social change • Threats to property rights • New kinds of crime Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 2 Understanding Ethical and Social Issues Related to Systems • A metaphor for thinking about ethical, social, and poli;cal issues – Society as a calm pond – IT as a rock dropped in pond, crea;ng ripples of new situa;ons not covered by old rules – Social and poli;cal ins;tu;ons cannot respond overnight to these ripples — it may take years to develop e;queQe, expecta;ons, laws – Requires understanding of ethics to make choices in legally gray areas The Rela;onship Between Ethical, Social, and Poli;cal Issues in an Informa;on Society Figure 4-1 Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 3 Chapter 4 – Part 2: Ethical and Social Issues in Informa;on Systems Ethics in an Informa;on Society Five Moral Dimensions of the Informa;on Age • Major issues raised by informa;on systems include: – Informa;on rights and obliga;ons – Property rights and obliga;ons – Accountability and control – System quality – Quality of life Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 4 Ethics in an Informa;on Society • Basic concepts form the underpinning of an ethical analysis of informa;on systems and those who manage them – Responsibility: Accep;ng the poten;al costs, du;es, and obliga;ons for decisions – Accountability: Mechanisms for iden;fying responsible par;es – Liability: Permits individuals (and ﬁrms) to recover damages done to them – Due process: Laws are well known and understood, with an ability to appeal to higher authori;es Ethics and Ethical Dilemmas • Some decisions are black/white, right/wrong decisions – Look to ethical principles to remind us of what’s right – Fairly easy to see the correct path to take • Some decisions are gray, e.g., right vs. more right… these are ethical dilemmas • Real‐world ethical dilemmas are everywhere – Typically, one set of interests piQed against another, e.g., the right of a company to maximize produc;vity of workers vs. workers’ right to usethe Internet for short personal tasks Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 5 Ethics in an Informa;on Society • Ethical analysis: A ﬁve‐step process 1. Iden;fy and clearly describe the facts 2. Deﬁne the conﬂict or dilemma and iden;fy the higher‐order values involved 3. Iden;fy the stakeholders 4. Iden;fy the op;ons that you can reasonably take 5. Iden;fy the poten;al consequences of your op;ons Candidate Ethical Principles • The Golden Rule – “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you…” • Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Impera;ve – If an ac;on is not right for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone • Descartes' Rule of Change – If an ac;on cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right to take at all Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 6 Candidate Ethical Principles (cont.) • U;litarian Principle – Take the ac;on that achieves the higher or greater value • Risk Aversion Principle – Take the ac;on that produces the least harm or least poten;al cost • Ethical “No Free Lunch” rule – Assume that virtually all tangible and intangible objects are owned by someone unless there is a speciﬁc declara;on otherwise Ethics in an Informa;on Society • Professional codes of conduct – Promulgated by associa;ons of professionals • E.g. AMA, ABA, AITP, ACM – Promises by professions to regulate themselves in the general interest of society Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 7 Chapter 4 – Part 3: Ethical and Social Issues in Informa;on Systems The Moral Dimensions of Informa;on Systems Moral Dimensions: Informa;on Rights and Obliga;ons • Privacy – Ability to control informa;on about yourself – Claim of individuals to be leh alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals, organiza;ons, or the state. • In the U.S., privacy is protected by: – First Amendment (freedom of speech) – Fourth Amendment (unreasonable search and seizure) – Addi;onal federal statutes, e.g., the Privacy Act of 1974 Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 8 Moral Dimensions: Fair Informa;on Prac;ces • Set of principles governing the collec;on and use of informa;on • Basis of most U.S. and European privacy laws • Based on mutuality of interest between record holder and individual • Restated and extended by FTC in 1998 to provide guidelines for protec;ng online privacy • Used to drive changes in privacy legisla;on – COPPA – Gramm‐Leach‐Bliley Act – HIPAA Moral Dimensions: FTC FIP Principles • No;ce/awareness (core principle) • Choice/consent (core principle) • Access/par;cipa;on • Security – Web sites must disclose prac;ces before collec;ng data – Consumers must be able to choose how informa;on is used for secondary purposes – Consumers must be able to review, contest accuracy of personal data – Data collectors must take steps to ensure accuracy, security of personal data – Must be mechanism to enforce FIP principles • Enforcement Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 9 Moral Dimensions: European Direc;ve on Data Protec;on • Requires companies to inform people when they collect informa;on about them and disclose how it will be stored and used. • Requires informed consent of customer (not true in the U.S.) • EU member na;ons cannot transfer personal data to countries without similar privacy protec;on (e.g. U.S.) • U.S. businesses use safe harbor framework Self‐regula;ng policy and enforcement that meets objec;ves of government legisla;on but does not involve government regula;on or enforcement The Moral Dimensions: Internet Challenges to Privacy • Cookies – Tiny ﬁles downloaded by Web site to visitor’s hard drive – Iden;fy visitor’s browser and track visits to site – Allow Web sites to develop proﬁles on visitors – Tiny graphics embedded in e‐mail messages and Web pages – Designed to monitor who is reading a message and transmimng that informa;on to another computer on the Internet • Web bugs • Spyware – Surrep;;ously installed on user’s computer – May transmit user’s keystrokes or display unwanted ads Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 10 The Moral Dimensions of IS • U.S. allows businesses to gather transac;on informa;on and use this for other marke;ng purposes • Online industry promotes self‐regula;on over privacy legisla;on • Self regula;on has proven highly variable – Statements of informa;on use are quite diﬀerent – Some ﬁrms oﬀer opt‐out selec;on boxes – Online “seals” of privacy principles • Most Web sites do not have any privacy policies • Many online privacy policies do not protect customer privacy, but rather protect the ﬁrm from lawsuits The Moral Dimensions of IS Web sites are posting their privacy policies for visitors to review. The TRUSTe seal designates Web sites that have agreed to adhere to TRUSTe’s established privacy principles of disclosure, choice, access, and security. Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 11 The Moral Dimensions of IS: One Technical Solu;on • The Planorm for Privacy Preferences (P3P) – Allows Web sites to communicate privacy policies to visitor’s Web browser – user – User speciﬁes privacy levels desired in browser semngs – Example: “medium” level accepts cookies from ﬁrst‐party host sites that have opt‐in or opt‐out policies but rejects third‐party cookies that use personally iden;ﬁable informa;on without an opt‐in policy Chapter 4 – Part 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Informa;on Systems Property Rights, Quality, and Other Issues Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 12 Property Rights: Intellectual Property • Intellectual property: Intangible property of any kind created by individuals or corpora;ons • Three ways that intellectual property is protected – Trade secret: Intellectual work or product belonging to business, not in the public domain – Copyright: Statutory grant protec;ng intellectual property from being copied for the life of the author, plus 70 years – Patents: Grants creator of inven;on an exclusive monopoly on ideas behind inven;on for 20 years Property Rights: Intellectual Property • Challenges to Intellectual Property Rights • Ease of replica;on • Ease of transmission (networks, Internet) • Diﬃculty in classifying sohware • Compactness • Diﬃcul;es in establishing uniqueness – Digital media diﬀerent from physical media (e.g., books, CDs, etc.) • Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) – Makes it illegal to circumvent technology‐based protec;ons of copyrighted materials Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 13 Accountability, Liability, Control • Computer‐related liability problems: If sohware fails, who is responsible? – If seen as a part of a machine that injures or harms, sohware producer and operator may be liable – If seen as similar to a book, diﬃcult to hold sohware author/publisher responsible – What should liability be if sohware is seen as a service? Would this be similar to telephone systems being liable for transmiQed messages (so‐called “common carriers”) System Quality: Data Quality and System Errors • What is an acceptable, technologically feasible level of system quality? – Flawless sohware is economically unfeasible • Three principal sources of poor system performance: – Sohware bugs, errors – Hardware or facility failures – Poor input data quality (most common source of business system failure) Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 14 Quality of Life: Nega;ve Social Consequences of Systems • Balancing power: Although compu;ng power is decentralizing, key decision‐making power remains centralized • Rapidity of change: Businesses may not have enough ;me to respond to global compe;;on • Maintaining boundaries: Compu;ng and Internet use lengthens the work‐day, infringes on family, personal ;me • Dependence and vulnerability: Public and private organiza;ons ever more dependent on computer systems Quality of Life: Nega;ve Social Consequences of Systems • Computer crime and abuse – Computer crime: Commission of illegal acts through use of a computer or against a computer system – computer may be the object or instrument of crime – Computer abuse: Unethical acts, not illegal • Spam: High costs for businesses in dealing with spam • Employment – Reengineering work resul;ng in lost jobs • Equity and access – the “Digital Divide” – Certain ethnic and income groups in the United States less likely to have computers or Internet access Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 15 Quality of Life: Nega;ve Social Consequences of Systems • Health risks: – Repe;;ve stress injury (RSI) – Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) – Computer vision syndrome (CVS) – Technostress – Role of radia;on, screen emissions, low‐level electromagne;c ﬁelds Produced by Dr. Brian Janz 16 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2011 for the course MIS 7650 taught by Professor Janz during the Spring '11 term at U. Memphis.
- Spring '11