Lec14 - EE 480/580 Biomedical Electronics Lecture 14...

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Biomedical Electronics Lecture 14 EE 480/580
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20-Oct-09 EE 480/580 Fall 2009 2 Outline b Intracellular electric fields b Laser tweezers b Laser Scissors b Microbial fuel cells
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Biopotentials
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b Previously, all biological measurements of intracellular electric fields (E fields), using voltage dyes or patch/voltage clamps, were confined to cellular membranes, which account for <0.1% of the total cellular volume. b Electric fields (E fields) are found in and surround every living cell and are critical for the proper functioning of biological processes. Intracellular Electric Fields
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b Biological E fields can affect the entire human body, such as the E fields associated with neural signals or cardiac rhythm. b Major E fields are also found in volumetrically small components of cells, such as the mitochondria. The E fields associated with the mitochondrial membrane are relatively large, with a highly polarized inner membrane potential, as high as ~150 mV Intracellular Electric Fields
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Electrical Activity of Excitable Cells
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b Dividing the membrane potential by the distance that the potential spans (the width of the membrane, ~5 nm) produces an E field on the order of ~3 ä 10 7 V/m. b Changes in E fields can indicate perturbations in biological function, such as observed in Alzheimer’s disease (reduction of the E field associated with the neuronal membrane potential) or cell death (loss of the E field associated with the mitochondrial membrane). Intracellular Electric Fields
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20-Oct-09 EE 480/580 Fall 2009 8 b Externally applied E fields have been employed in the modulation of a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes, and significant alteration/adaptation of cellular regulatory processes have been achieved. b In the clinical management of wound healing, external E fields have been shown to accelerate repair. b Both endogenous and applied E fields have been demonstrated to stimulate Xenopus nerve growth and regeneration. b Exposure of cells in culture to short E field pulses induces electroporation of membranes for the delivery of nucleotides, peptides, and small proteins; many of these are under development as therapeutics. Intracellular Electric Fields
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External E fields have also been shown to induce mitochondria to fuse and to stimulate gene expression. b However, with available technologies, it remains difficult to assess the effect of external fields on many intracellular components in the live cell. b With both external and internal cellular E fields producing wide-ranging biological effects, the ability to measure complete electric profiles (charge-coupled gradients and fields) of cells will greatly enhance the understanding of biological processes. Intracellular Electric
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2011 for the course EE 580 taught by Professor Dr.natalialitchinister during the Spring '11 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Lec14 - EE 480/580 Biomedical Electronics Lecture 14...

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