Poverty and Race

Poverty and Race - Poverty and Race/Ethnicity...

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Unformatted text preview: Poverty and Race/Ethnicity Race/Ethnicity The poor are disproportionately Black (24.9%) and Hispanic (21.8%) Ethnicity and Race Ethnicity Ethnic groups distinguished from others on the basis of socially deemed important cultural traits: religion, diet, language, etc. Racial group refers to people who share a set of similar physical characteristics deemed to be socially important Ethnicity and Race Ethnicity Social constructs: vary across societies, groups, individuals, and over time Arbitrary categories; more than one meaning within societies Social categories created to rank people Ethnicity and Race Comparison Ethnicity Social creations Arbitrary; relative to space and time; within and between groups variations Bases for individual and group identity Bases for individual attachments and group cohesion Bases for social relations Ethnicity is cultural while race is skin deep physical traits Overlap between the two but significant areas of distinction Gender and Poverty Gender 30% of female­headed families are poor Sex and Gender Sex Sex is biological distinctions: female or male Gender is cultural distinctions: feminine or masculine Gender and Sex: A Comparison Gender Sex and gender are ascribed status Identities that received differential treatment relative to counterparts Affect lifestyle and life chances Gender refers to biology­based traits while gender refers to socially­created identities Gender is a social construct Gender is relative to space and over time The Thomas Theorem The If people define race and ethnicity as real, they will act on these beliefs affect accordingly their interaction with others Minority Minority Group treated differently On the bases of cultural and/or physical characteristics Whose members are assigned to the group by birth The ascribed membership is made known to both members and non­members Group is reinforced via endogamy Ethnic Minority Creation Processes Ethnic Annexation Colonialism Immigration Voluntary Involuntary Dominant-Subordinate Ethnic/Racial Groups Relationships Ethnic/Racial (Tolerance) Annihilation _ Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, Lynching Segregation Exile, geographical, socio­spatial Assimilation Cultural, Marital, Structural Pluralism + Minority=Subordination Minority=Subordination The size of a group does not determine the minority status of a group Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice Elements of the ideology and ways of doing things that justify and maintain the status quo e.g. minority groups and poverty Prejudice­­­­ Discrimination ? Institutional v Individual Discrimination Minorities Minorities Health Education Housing Jobs Unemployment Crime Family Problems Ideologies of Domination Ideologies Sexism Racism Ethnocentrism Double Jeopardy Double The intersection of race/ethnicity and gender and combined negative effects Effects on American Workers Effects Decline in the number of employers and the concentration of markets by large corporations Export of capital and jobs overseas Biggest job losses have been in manufacturing In industrial cities of the Northeast and Midwest From Manufacturing to Service From The shift in manufacturing jobs to service jobs has resulted in a decline in union membership In 1960, 27 percent of employees in the private sector belonged to a trade union; today that figure is 11 percent Another trend in the shift from manufacturing to service jobs has been the growth of contingent work­ work not based on a written contract with regular hours Women in the Global Market Women Approximately 6 percent of both men and women hold multiple jobs Most multiple job holders hold two or more jobs to pay bills Many hold two jobs because of part time work and the lack of a full time job Women work part time because of: Schooling Family and the lack of affordable childcare Technology and Specialization Technology Specialization Specialization of work has a number of implications: 1. Lower echelon workers trained in single tasks that lose their jobs will find it difficult to locate new ones 2. Single­task workers will feel more and more like automatons­ just a cog in the machinery of work Technology and Specialization Technology Specialization Specialization of work has a number of implications: 3. High level mangers will face ongoing problems of coordination and cooperation among their employees Problem Aspects of Work Problem Computer control of work affects workers in that they are under a hidden system of supervision Computer control of work alters the structure of the work organization Interdependence between workers and computer specialists with different roles and goals in the organization Computers may contribute to job dissatisfaction Job Insecurity and Unemployment Job The economic downturn in the financial market along with the events of September 11, 2001 have led to an increase in job insecurity Loss of blue­collar jobs Loss of managerial and professional jobs Long term unemployment Many have experienced downward mobility Job Insecurity and Unemployment Unemployment Frictional Unemployment and Permanent Displacement Temporarily between no job to job loss or change The Invisible Unemployed and the Discouraged Worker Out of work but not looking for work Have become discouraged in finding a job Alienation Alienation Alienation from work is reflected in the inability to express one’s self in their work Several elements are related to alienation of workers today 1. Clash between people’s self­image and their jobs 2. Jobs that offer little opportunity for personal judgment 3. Being closely supervised Politics and Social Policy Politics Policies and politics will focus on issues health insurance and benefits for workers Reform of welfare laws Welfare to work policies Policies and politics will focus on issues of regulation and deregulation of sectors of the economy Examples of Policies Examples Family Leave Act Affirmative action Flex Time Welfare reform Head Start Comparable Worth Reproductive Control ...
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