Ch11_Outline part1

Ch11_Outline part1 - The Coastal Ocean Chapter 11 Prof....

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The Coastal Ocean Chapter 11 Prof. Weatherly We now examine that 5% or so of the ocean which we call the coastal ocean.
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The coastal ocean introduction The coastal ocean is essentially everything shoreward of the continental shelf break This includes the continental shelf and sheltered waters such as bays, estuaries, lagoons and wetlands. This is the shallow water colored light green in the figure.
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Coastal ocean introduction continued Coastal ocean is very important ◦ about 95% of the world fisheries is there ◦ about 95% of the total ocean life is there ◦ estuaries and wetlands are some of the most productive regions on the planet ◦ estuaries and wetlands are the nurseries of many of marine species ◦ it is the conduit much of earth materials must pass on their way from land to the open oceans So while a small fraction of the ocean – about 5% by area – the coastal ocean’s importance is large.
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Laws governing the oceans Who owns the oceans? Some history ◦ starting around 1700 what you can protect is yours ◦ range of canons about 1 league (3 nautical miles) ◦ hence “3 nautical-mile territorial limit” off shore • starting in 1950’s international conferences started on extending territorial limits further offshore ◦ 1958 United Nations (UN) Conference on the Law of the Sea ◦ 1960 second UN Conference on the Law of the Sea ◦ 1973-1982 third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea 1982 Law of Sea passed. 130 for 4 against (US, Turkey, Israel, Venezuela) with abstentions (USSR, GB, Belgium, Netherlands, West Germany, Italy) ◦ 1993 Law of Sea ratified establishing it as international law ◦ US signed a revised treaty in 1994 (However, US Senate has not yet ratified the treaty
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Law of the Sea 12-mile territorial sea 200-nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) from all land – including islands. (350-nautical mile EEZ if continental shelf exceeds the 200-nautical mile limit) Jurisdiction in EEZ of ◦ mineral resources ◦ fishing ◦ pollution regulations • Ship Passage still allowed • Deep ocean mineral resources ◦ regulated by International Seabed Authority which is controlled by the UN mining companies must fund two mining operations – theirs and a UN one. Disbutes arbitrated by UN Law of Sea triburnal
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Law of the Sea continued 42% of oceans in EEZ’s US has 30% more EEZ than land
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Characteristics of coastal waters Water is shallow and close to land ◦ less water to heat & cool so temperature seasonal variabililty is larger than in open ocean ◦river run off effects are larger than in open ocean and seasonal salinity changes are larger than in open ocean ◦tides are stronger
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Salinity variations River runoff can lead to less saline upper layer (left panel) Dry offshore breezes can lead to more saline upper layer (middle panel) Combined river runoff and mixing by breezes and/tides can lead to well mixed isohaline structure (right panel) ◦ less saline near land ◦ increasingly saline as open ocean is approached
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Temperature In polar coastal regions often isothermal and cold (upper center panel)
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2011 for the course OCE 1001 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at FSU.

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Ch11_Outline part1 - The Coastal Ocean Chapter 11 Prof....

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