Ch11_Outline part2

Ch11_Outline part2 - The Coastal Ocean Chapter 11 Prof...

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The Coastal Ocean Chapter 11 Prof. Weatherly Announcement: Next class 3/30/06 Quiz 3 Chapters 9,10,11 Questions from Exercises on: Understanding Concepts & Visualizing Oceanography Today: Review important points from last lecture and finish Coastal Ocean
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Review of some important points from last lecture Coastal ocean is very important ◦ about 95% of the world fisheries is there ◦ about 95% of the total ocean life is there ◦ estuaries and wetlands are some of the most productive regions on the planet ◦ estuaries and wetlands are the nurseries of many of marine species ◦ it is the conduit much of earth materials must pass on their way from land to the open oceans
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Law of the Sea 12-mile territorial sea 200-nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) from all land – including islands. (350-nautical mile EEZ if continental shelf exceeds the 200-nautical mile limit) Jurisdiction in EEZ of ◦ mineral resources ◦ fishing ◦ pollution regulations • Ship Passage still allowed • Deep ocean mineral resources ◦ regulated by International Seabed Authority which is controlled by the UN mining companies must fund two mining operations – theirs and a UN one. Disputes arbitrated by UN Law of Sea tribunal
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Estuaries Classification by origin (a) coastal plain – drowned river (e.g. Chesapeake Bay) ◦ (b) bar built - behind a barrier island (e.g, Apalachicola Bay). ◦ (d) tectonic (e.g. San Francisco Bay) ◦ (b) fjord – gouged out by glaciers, usually have a sill at the mouth
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Estuaries classified by mixing continued Note that the flow at the bottom for cases (b) – (d) is shoreward. At estuary mouth outflow is at the surface, and inflow at depth. Don’t dump pollution in the lower layer of an estuary. An estuary can change from one to the other mixing category as mixing conditions change.
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Example of an estuary Chesapeake Bay Usually a slightly stratified estuary Biggest estuary in US. (Note big enough to see effects of Coriolis effect. Fresher outflow on west side and saltier inflow on east side) Bottom waters become anoxic in summer. Bad for the crabs, oysters, etc. then. The anoxic conditions have worsened with increased human impact.
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Wetlands Wetlands are one of most highly productive ecosystems. Salt marshes are nurseries for half of commercially important fish in the US Southeast. Other fish (e.g. flounder and bluefish) use marshes as refuges in winter. Mangroves are nurseries for shrimp, shellfish, and some fish species. Wetlands are stopover places for migrating ducks, geese, and other migratory birds Wetlands are efficient at cleansing polluted waters (1 acre can clean up 730,000 gallons a year) Wetlands absorb waters and mitigate coastal flooding during storm surges.
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Wetlands continued Wetlands have disappeared.
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